Stonehenge

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stonehenge

 

Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about 2.0 miles (3.2 km) west of Amesbury and 8 miles (13 km) north of Salisbury. One of the most famous sites in the world, Stonehenge is composed of earthworks surrounding a circular setting of large standing stones. It is at the centre of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds.[ - Archaeologists have believed that the iconic stone monument was erected around 2500 BC, as described in the chronology below. Radiocarbon dating in 2008, however, has suggested that the first stones were not erected until 2400–2200 BC, whilst another theory suggests that bluestones may have been erected at the site as early as 3000 BC

 

The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stonehenge

 

 

 

Ancient Mysteries – Stonehenge ( 5 Mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zVRtYdGzmxw

 

History and Myths of Stonehenge

http://www.timstouse.com/EarthHistory/stonehenge.htm

 

 

    Avebury Stone Circle

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Avebury Stone Circle Complex -  Southwest England

 

An aerial view of the Avebury stone circle complex, in southwest England. With over 150 stones and and outer circle over a mile in circumference, Avebury is the largest known neolithic religious complex in the world. It includes a Circular Mound nearby.

 

Avebury is an ancient religious center located in southwest England, just 24 miles north of its more famous cousin, Stonehenge. Avebury, however, is actually much larger than Stonehenge and, it is believed, played a more important role in England's prehistory. Avebury was built around 2400 b.c., during the Neolithic Period, and was in regular use for over 2,300 years. The primary stone circle is the largest in the world, being over 1,400 feet in diameter, surrounded by a deep trench over a mile in circumference.

 

The trench was carved out of solid rock with only primitive tools, and was believed to have once been filled with water, making the inner stone circle sit on what appeared to be an island. Unfortunately, most of the stones have been removed and reused to build the village of Avebury, part of which actually resides within the circle

 

The largest man-made mound in Europe lies in Wilshire, England near the Avebury stone circle. Dating from 2660 B.C. Silbury Hill is an unusually stable chalk/earth construction approximately 130 feet in height. Excavation has proven the hill is not funerary in nature, and supportable theory suggests the hill and surrounding plain are an earthen representation of the Great Goddess.

 

 

  Silvery Hill Round  Mound   - Silbury

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Silvery Hill Round Mound -  Silbury - Whiltshire Country ? – (Druid Country)

 

 

   

 

Avebury/Silbury

 

 

   Stone Ring of Avebury

 

 

 

 

 

Stone Ring of Avebury, England

 

Ninety miles west of London and twenty miles north of Stonehenge stands Avebury, the largest known stone ring in the world. Older than the more famous Stonehenge, and for many visitors far more spectacular, the multiple rings of Avebury are cloaked with mysteries which archaeologists have only begun to unravel.
Similar to Stonehenge and many other megalithic monuments in the British Isles, Avebury is a composite construction that was added to and altered during several periods. As the site currently exists, the great circle consists of a grass-covered, chalk-stone bank that is 1,396 feet in diameter (427 meters) and 20 feet high (6 meters) with a deep inner ditch having four entrances at the cardinal compass points. Just inside the ditch, which was clearly not used for defensive purposes, lies a grand circle of massive and irregular sarsen stones enclosing approximately 28 acres of land. This circle, originally composed of at least 98 stones but now having only 27, itself encloses two smaller stone circles. The two inner circles were probably constructed first, around 2600 BC, while the large outer ring and earthwork dates from 2500 BC. The northern circle is 320 feet in diameter and originally had twenty-seven stones of which only four remain standing today; the southern circle is 340 feet across and once contained twenty-nine stones, of which only five remain standing.



 

 

   White Horse Hill

 

 

 

 

 

The Uffington White Horse Hill

 

The Uffington White Horse is a highly stylized prehistoric hill figure, 110 m long (374 feet), formed from deep trenches filled with crushed white chalk. The figure is situated on the upper slopes of White Horse Hill in the English civil parish of Uffington (in the county of Oxfordshire, historically Berkshire), some 8 km (5 mi) south of the town of Faringdon and a similar distance west of the town of Wantage. The hill forms a part of the scarp of the Berkshire Downs and overlooks the Vale of White Horse to the north. Best views of the figure are obtained from the air, or from directly across the Vale, particularly around the villages of Great Coxwell, Longcot and Fernham. The site is owned and managed by the National Trust.


 

 

   Cornwall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cornwall - Mên-an-Tol

 

The Mên-an-Tol (also Men an Toll) is a small formation of standing stones near the Madron-Morvah road in Cornwall, United Kingdom (grid reference SW426349). It is about 3 miles north west of Madron. It is also known locally as the "Crick Stone".

 

The name Mên-an-Tol in the Cornish Language, literally means "the hole stone".

 

The Mên-an-Tol monument consists of four stones: one fallen, two uprights, and between these a circular one, 1.3m (4ft 6in) in diameter, pierced by a hole that occupies about half its size. An old plan of Mên-an-Tol (the name means stone with a hole in Cornish) shows that originally the three main stones stood in a triangle, which makes certain astro-archaeological claims for it difficult to support. They could be the remains of a Neolithic tomb, because holed stones have served as entrances to burial chambers. Its age in uncertain but it is usually assigned to the Bronze Age, between 3000-4000 years ago.


 

 

   Arthur’s Stone

 

 

 

 

 

Arthur’s Stone

 

‘Arthur’s Stone’. This was an ancient tomb dating from 3700BC to 2700BC. The ‘chambered tombs’ were used to bury the neolithic dead. They were used over many generations. Arthur’s stone was once covered by a mound of earth which has largely been eroded away over time. The stone roof of the tomb has collapsed. According to legend, the stone marks the sport of one of King Arthur’s battles – however the stone has been at the site since long before the time that Arthur is supposed to have been around.



 

 

    Newgrange – Ireland

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newgrange – Ireland

Considered to be the oldest and most famous prehistoric site in all of Irelan , Newgrange is a tomb that was built from earth, wood, clay, and stone around 3100 BC, some 1000 years before the construction of the pyramids in Egypt. It consists of a long passage that leads to a cross-shaped chamber that was apparently used as a tomb, as it contains stone basins filled with cremated remains. The most unique feature of Newgrange is its careful and sturdy design, which has helped the structure remain completely waterproof to this day. Most amazing of all, the entrance to the tomb was positioned relative to the sun in such a way that on the winter solstice, the shortest day of the year, the rays from the sun are channeled through the opening and down the nearly 60 foot passageway, where they illuminate the floor of the monuments central room.

The Mystery:

Archeologists know Newgrange was used as a tomb, but why and for who still remains a mystery. The painstaking design needed to guarantee that the yearly solstice event occurs suggests that the site was held in high regard, but other than the obvious hypothesis that the sun featured prominently in the mythology of the builders, scientists are at a loss to describe the true reason for Newgranges construction.
 

http://www.travelermania.com/traveler-chit-chat/top-10-mysterious-world-landmarks/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Castlestrange Stone - Ancient Ireland

 

Along the side of the farm drive in the grounds of Castlestrange Demense stands this beautifully inscribed Cult stone, decorated with curvilinear ornament and dating to around 200 BC. The design is done in the Celtic La Tene style, similar to the Turoe Stone which is not far away in Co. Galway. The Turoe Stone is carved in relief while the design on the pink granite Castlestrange stone is incised. At 60 cm high and approx. 90 cm long, it sits on a round bed of radially placed river rocks which in turn is surrounded by a protective cattle grid.

 

While the function of these cult stones is not clear, it is presumed that they had a ritual or religious purpose.

 

http://www.eso-garden.com/index.php?/weblog/comments/ancient_ireland/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Drombeg Stone Circle -  Ancient Ireland

 

This stone circle is situated on a natural rock terrace on the south slope of a low hill. It is approximately 9 meters in diameter and at present it consists of 17 standing stones, the most westerly of which is the fine altar-like axial, which has two egg-shaped cup-marks, one with a surrounding ring. The two portal stones, the tallest of which is 2.05 m, are on the NE side. During the winter solstice it has been reported that the suns rays fall on the flat alter stone that faces the entrance to the circle.

 

http://www.eso-garden.com/index.php?/weblog/comments/ancient_ireland/


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Turoe Carved Stone - Celtic Iron Age Ireland

 

The Turoe Stone. Some people feel that that carvings may represent a global map, while others see a phallic design.

 

Another archaeological feature of Celtic Iron Age Ireland are large carved stones. These stones stood up to seven feet (two meters) high and were carved with complex swirling patterns which were characteristics of the Central European Celtic cultures.

 

http://www.dailykos.com/story/2011/08/30/1011843/-Ancient-Ireland-The-Celtic-Iron-Age-

 

 

Callanish Stones –            Scotland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Callanish Stones - The stone circle at the centre of the Standing Stones of Callanish – Scotland

 

The Callanish Stones, are situated near the village of Callanish (Gaelic: Calanais) on the west coast of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides (Western Isles of Scotland).

 

Construction of the site took place between 2900 and 2600 BC, though there were possibly earlier buildings before 3000 BC. A tomb was later built into the site. Debris from the destruction of the tomb suggests the site was out of use between 2000 BC and 1700 BC.[1] The 13 primary stones form a circle about 13 m in diameter, with a long approach avenue of stones to the north, and shorter stone rows to the east, south, and west. The overall layout of the monument recalls a distorted Celtic cross. The individual stones vary from around 1 m to 5 m in height, with an average of 4 m, and are of the local Lewisian gneiss.


 

 

Three carved stone balls from the British Museum's collection.

 

 

 

The Five Platonic Solids  Spheres - Scotland

 

Hundreds of carved stone spheres, roughly three inches in diameter, believed to date to around 2000 BC, have been found in Scotland. Some are carved with lines corresponding to the edges of regular polyhedra. Roughly half have 6 knobs---like the one at right above---but the others range from three to 160 knobs. The more mathematically regular ones do not appear to have had a special importance. For example, in addition to the 12-knob dodecahedral form shown in the center and just to its right above, there are also ones with 14 knobs, corresponding to a form with two opposite hexagons, each surrounded by six pentagons. Nonetheless, the dodecahedron appears here long before the Greeks wrote of it. The function of these stones is unknown and so it is unclear whether I should list them here under the category art, but many are intricately carved with spirals or cross-hatching on the faces. The material varies from easily carved sandstone and serpentine to difficult, hard granite and quartzite.

http://www.mathsinthecity.com/tours/maths-city-oxford?full=1

 

http://rabbithole2.com/presentation/ancient/ancient_artifacts_that_challenge_modern_archaeology.htm

 

Three carved stone balls from the British Museum's collection.

 

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/pe_prb/t/three_carved_stone_balls.aspx

 

 

 


 

 

Inspired by Stonehenge?


Morner says his team observed that the sun rises and sets at specific points around Ales Stenar at the summer and winter solstices, hinting that an ancient culture could have built it as an astronomical calendar to time things like annual religious ceremonies or planting and harvesting crops.

They also observed that certain aspects of the stone ship’s geometry matched those of Stonehenge,

 

 

Ale's Stones - The Swedish Stonehenge ?

 

It is a megalithic monument in southern Sweden, resembles a stone ship built of 59 large sandstone boulders, weighing up to 1.8 tons each

 

Ancient Scandinavians dragged 59 boulders to a seaside cliff near what is now the Swedish fishing village of Kaseberga. They carefully arranged the massive stones — each weighing up to 4,000 pounds (1,800 kilograms) — in the outline of a 220-foot-long (67-meter) ship overlooking the Baltic Sea.

Archaeologists generally agree this megalithic structure, known as Ales Stenar (“Ale’s Stones”), was assembled about 1,000 years ago, near the end of the Iron Age, as a burial monument. But a team of researchers now argues it’s really 2,500 years old, dating from the Scandinavian Bronze Age, and was built as an astronomical calendar with the same underlying geometry as England’s Stonehenge. ...

 

http://quasi-mundo.com/2012/04/swedish-stonehenge-ancient-stone-structure-spurs-debate/

 

The Secret of Ale Stones ( 2 mins)

 

A short documentary about Ale stones in south of Sweden. Gives a mythical teaser of why these stones exists.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rd01WZHx1dc

 

 

 

 

 

 

Runes - or Runic Alphabets

 

Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter. ....

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sweden  - The Ancient Tanum Viking Rock Carvings In Western Sweden

 

One of the largest rocks of Nordic Bronze Age petroglyphs in Scandinavia is located in Tanumshede locality, Tanum Municipality. In total there are thousands of images called the Tanum petroglyphs, on about 600 panels within the World Heritage Area. These are concentrated in distinct areas along a 25 km stretch, which was the coastline of a fjord during the Bronze Age, and covers an area of about 51 hectares. Tanumshede rock carvings have been declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

Scandinavian Bronze Age and Iron Age people were sophisticated craftsmen and very competent travelers by water. (Dates for ages vary with the region; in Scandinavia, the Bronze Age is roughly 1800 to 500 BCE) Many of the glyphs depict boats of which some seem to be of the Hjortspring boat type carrying around a dozen passengers. Wagons or carts are also depicted.

Other glyphs depict humans with a bow, spear or axe, and others depict hunting scenes. In all cases the pictures show people performing rituals. There is a human at a plough drawn by two oxen, holding what might be a branch or an ox-goading crop made of a number of strips of hide.

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bohusl%C3%A4n

 

Ancient Sites in Sweden

 

 - The Royal Mounds

 

The Royal mounds (Kungshögarna) is the name for the three large barrows which are located in Gamla (Old) Uppsala. According to ancient mythology and folklore, it would be the three gods Thor, Odin and Freyr lying in Kungshögarna. In the 19th and 20th centuries, they were speculated to hold the remains of three kings of the legendary House of Ynglings and where thus known by the names Aun's Mound, Adil's Mound and Egil's Mound. Today their geographical locations are instead used and they are called the Eastern mound, Middle Mound and Western Mound.

Mounds are dated to the 5th and 6th centuries. As Sweden's oldest national symbols they are even depicted on the covers of books about the Swedish national identity

http://www.spottinghistory.com/tag/ancient-sites-in-sweden/1/

 

 

    Menhirs

 

 

 

 

Megaliths  - Dolmens, Tumulus, Cairns and Menhirs

 

Humans have occupied Armorica since the Palaeolithic era. Living originally as hunter gatherers, the population became settled in the Neolithic period (around 4500 BC), gradually mastering the techniques of raising livestock, cultivating crops and building. This was the civilisation that created the tradition of standing stones. Most of the megaliths (dolmens, tumulus, and menhirs) were constructed between 4500 and 200 BC. With almost 3000 standing stones spread over several sites, Carnac displays some of the greatest vestiges of megalithic art.



 

 

    Carnac - France

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Menhires at Carnac - France

 

The megaliths of Carnac, in Brittany, are stone relics that are thousands of years old and date back to the middle of the Neolithic period. Four long avenues of mighty stone known as 'alignments' extend across eight kilometres of scenic terrain. The Kerzerho Stones are one of the most splendid alignments in Carnac. They consist of more than 1100 stones and cover an area of almost two kilometres. But what significance did this formation have with its Neolithic creators and how were they able to transport these massive stones? The stones will probably never reveal their secrets, but many historians and archaeologists believe that they were connected with some kind of religious belief. The area around Carnac also contains numerous intriguing Dolmen, a series of vertical stones that support a large slab, a kind of stone table.

 

CARNAC -  Carnac Stones Brittany, France ( 10 mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=inzmreZZ9-E

 

 

 

 

 Cairn at Gavrinis

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cairn at Gavrinis - Brittany, France

 

The Isle of Goats just off the coast of Brittany in France is home to the wonderful Gavrinis Megalithic Cairn. The cairn is about 5500 years old, it is 60 metres in diameter and covers a passage and chamber which is lined with elaborately engraved stones. The 12 metre passage leads to a 2.7 x 2.3 metre chamber which is covered by a large granite capstone. Gavrinis is remarkably similar to Newgrange which was built about 300 years later. There must have been close contact between the Neolithic people of Ireland and Brittany which are 400km apart.

 

Gavrinis (Gavr'inis) is a 10 minute boat trip from the Harbour at Larmor Baden, the round trip including the guided tour lasts about 1 hour and 20 minutes. In order to protect the monument and avoid scratching the stones, cameras are not allowing inside the cairn.

 

In the passage and chamber 23 of the 29 upright stones are elaborately engraved with zig-zags, concentric circles, herring bones, axes, bows and arrows


 

 

   Dolmen of Kerbourg

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Dolmen of Kerbourg Brittany

 

A dolmen (also known as cromlech (Welsh), is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of three or more upright stones supporting a large flat horizontal capstone (table). Most date from the early Neolithic period (4000 to 3000 BC). Dolmens were usually covered with earth or smaller stones to form a barrow, though in many cases that covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the burial mound intact.

 

Megalithic tombs are found from the Baltic Sea and North Sea coasts south to Spain and Portugal. Hunebedden are chamber tombs similar to dolmens and date to the middle Neolithic (Funnelbeaker culture, 4th millennium BC).

 

 

   Pyramids of Sicily

 

 

 

 

Pyramids of Sicily

 

http://www.gigalresearch.com/uk/pyramides-sicile.php

 

http://www.european-pyramids.eu/wb/pages/european-pyramids/italy/sicily.php?lang=DE

 

 

 

 

   Pyramids of Bosnia


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pyramids of Bosnia  -  BOSNIAN VALLEY OF THE PYRAMIDS- Visoko (Bosnia)

 

The concept of the structures built in the shape of the pyramid with the inner chambers and passageways and the orientation toward the cardinal points had been present worldwide from Central and South America to Africa, Asia and Europe. Different civilizations, in different ages, used them for different purposes. Still, some questions remain open regarding the logistics, age and the use of the structures.

 

The discovery of the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids in Visoko (Bosnia-Herzegovina), in 2005, requires the traditional definition of a "pyramid" to be reconsidered and widened. Certain astronomical and mathematical knowledge incorporated in Bosnian pyramids are similar to Egyptian true pyramids, Chinese or Mexican step pyramids.

 

Huge construction work had been performed in the Visoko Valley. The elements of both: the superstructure (natural core, nucleus, outer-facing) and the substructure (tunnels, corridors) have been discovered but yet to be proven as a part of the master plan. It will be achieved through the combination of classic geo-archaeological methods, advanced geo-radar and satellite technologies….

http://www.thecropcircles.eu/sun_pyramid.htm

 

This complex is named the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids and includes the following structures:

 

  • Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun (former "Visocica Hill")

  • Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon (former "Pljesevica Hill")

  • Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon (former "Buci Hill")

  • Temple of Earth (former "Krstac Hill")

  • Bosnian Pyramid of Love (former "Cemerac Hill")

  • Tumulus in Vratnica (former "Toprakalija Hill" in Vratnica)

  • Structure "Dolovi" (Vratnica)

  • Underground tunnel complex "Ravne" (entrance to the tunnel 2.5 km from the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun)

  • Underground tunnel network "KTK" (entrance to the tunnel 1 km from the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun).

Bosnian Pyramid Documentary ( 20 mins)

 

Pyramid mania has descended upon Bosnia. Over 400,000 people have visited the sites since October 2005, when Osmanagich announced his discovery. The Bosnian Pyramid, Visocica Hill, is the first European pyramid to be discovered and is located in the heart of Bosnia, in the town of Visoko. The pyramid has all the elements: four perfectly shaped slopes pointing toward the cardinal points, a flat top and an entrance complex. On top of the pyramid are also the ruins of a Medieval walled town, once the base of a Bosnian king Tvrtko of Kotromanic (1338-1391). Because of its similarities to the Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan, Mexico, it has been named the "Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun" ('Bosanska Piramida Sunca').

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ETm-4oQ9WF0

 

 

  Tenerife Pyramids

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pyramids of Güímar - Tenerife Pyramids

 

The Pyramids of Güímar refer to six rectangular pyramid-shaped, terraced structures, built from lava stone without the use of mortar. They are located in the district of Chacona, part of the town of Güímar on the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The structures have been dated to the 19th century and their original function explained as a byproduct of contemporary agricultural techniques. - Local traditions as well as surviving images indicate that similar structures (also known as, "Morras", "Majanos", "Molleros", or "Paredones") could once have been found in many locations on the island. However, over time they have been dismantled and used as a cheap building material. In Güímar itself there were nine pyramids, only six of which survive.

 

Astronomical research and Freemasonry

 

In 1991, research by Juan Antonio Belmonte Avilés, Antonio Aparicio Juan and César Esteban López, researchers of the Canary Institute of Astrophysics, shown that the long sides of some of the terrace structures at Güímar marked the direction of both solstices. Standing on the platform of the largest pyramid on the day of the Summer solstice it is possible to experience a double sunset, as first the sun sets behind a mountain top, then it emerges again from behind the mountain and sets a second time behind a neighbouring peak. The pyramids have stairs on their western side which face the direction of the rising sun on both solstices.[4] However, considering the room that these observations leave for interpretation, it is impossible based solely on these observations alone to conclude what was the intention of the builders or the building date.

 

Thor Heyerdahl

 

In 1990, adventurer and publisher, Thor Heyerdahl, became aware of the "Canarian Pyramids" by reading an article written by Francisco Padrón in the Tenerife newspaper "Diario de Avisos" detailing "real pyramids on the Canaries".[ As Heyerdahl had hypothesized a transatlantic link between Egypt and Central America, he became intrigued by the Güímar pyramids and relocated to Tenerife. There Heyerdahl researched possible parallels between the Canarian terrace structures and pyramid structures in Egypt and Central America in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica as ceremonial areas.

 

Heyerdahl hypothesised that the Canarian pyramids formed a temporal and geographic stopping point on voyages between ancient Egypt and the Maya civilization, initiating a controversy in which historians, esoterics, archaeologists, astronomers, and those with a general interest in history took part.

 

 http://www.philipcoppens.com/newpyramidage.html

 

 

 

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