Lebanon

 

 

The Trylithon

 

Great Stones, Baalbek, 1891

 

 

The Amazing Cut Stones at Baalbek – A Truly Great Mystery !!!

Baalbeck is a city in eastern Lebanon. There is a great mystery at Baalbek. Under the temple of Jupiter and almost hidden by it, lay the remains of an earlier temple, probably dedicated to the heathen god Baal. - Baalbeck is a quarry where the stones used in the temples were cut.

 

http://www.archaeologyinmarlow.org.uk/2011/01/986/

 

At the southern entrance of Baalbeck is a quarry where the stones used in the temples were cut. A huge block, considered the largest hewn stone in the world, still sits where it was cut almost 2,000 years ago. Called the "Stone of the Pregnant Woman", it is 21.5m x 4.8m x 4.2meters in size and weighs an estimated 1,000 tons.

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=147635

 

http://www.world-mysteries.com/mpl_5.htm

 

Ancient High Technology ( 51 mins)
Randy Koppang is the guest of The Spencer Grendahl Show, speaking about anomalies and evidence of high technology present in the construction of ancient megalithic sites of Baalbek, Lebanon and the Giza Plateau in Egypt.
 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jwJXls8gJ8&feature=related

 

The great stones of Baalbek show stylistic similarities to other cyclopean stone walls at verifiably pre-Roman sites such as the Acropolis foundation in Athens, the foundations of Myceneae, Tiryns, Delphi and even megalithic constructions in the ‘new world’ such as Ollyantaytambo in Peru and Tiahuanaco in Bolivia. Baalbek as a mystery remains unsolved!.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2nd Stone at Quarry

 

 

 

Great Stone of the Pregnant Woman

 

Baalbek  -  The Largest Stone on Plant Earth   ( 6  mins)

Approximately 86 kilometers northeast of the city of Beirut in eastern Lebanon stands the temple complex of Baalbek. Situated in a high point in the Bekaa valley, the ruins are one of the most extraordinary and enigmatic holy places of ancient times. Long before the Romans conquered the site and built their enormous temple of Jupiter, long even before the Phoenicians constructed a temple to the god Baal, there stood at Baalbek the largest stone block construction found in the entire world.

Another even larger stone lies in a limestone quarry a quarter of a mile from the Baalbek complex. Weighing an estimated 1200 tons, it is sixty-nine feet by sixteen feet by thirteen feet ten inches, making it the single largest piece of stonework ever crafted in the world. Called the Hajar el Gouble, the Stone of the South, or the Hajar el Hibla, the Stone of the Pregnant Woman.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rigtXKyJCWU&feature=related

 

 

Temple of Jupiter in Baalbek

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roman structures atop massive pre-Roman stones of Baalbek

 

 

http://sacredsites.com/middle_east/lebanon/baalbek.html

 

 

 

Mamluk Fortress of Baalbek

 

 

 

Mamluk Fortress of Baalbek


 

 

 

 

Turkey

 

 

 

 

 

Turkey's Map of Ancient Ruins

 

Turkey's Map with many historic sights, Mediterranean coast and mountain towns, Ephesus, Hieropolis, Cappadocia, Nemrut Dağı, Göbekli Tepe, Ancient Hittite Ruins – Anatolia, Ancient city of Hierapolis and Pamukkale...

 

See also: The Ruins of Troy
 

 

 

Nemrut Colossal Heads

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Colossal and Enigmatic Sculptures  -  Nemrut Dağı - Turkey
Scattered around a huge tumulus at the top of "Nemrut Dağı" (Mount Nemrut, Turkey).
 

 

 

Mount Nemrut at sunset - Nemrut Dağı ( 5:44 mins)


Nemrut or Nemrud (Armenian: Նեմրութ լեռ) (Turkish: 'Nemrut Dağı') is a 2,134 m high mountain in southeastern Turkey, notable for the summit where a number of large statues is erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the first century BC.


In 62 BC, King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene built on the mountain top a tomb-sanctuary flanked by huge statues (8--9 m/26--30 ft high) of himself, two lions, two eagles and various Greek, and Persian gods, such as Zeus-Ormazd, Tyche, and Apollo-Mithras. These statues were once seated, with names of each god inscribed on them. The heads of the statues have at some stage been removed or toppled from their bodies, and they are now scattered throughout the site.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOz5Mw9VnPM
 

The Heads of Nemrut Dag at Sunset, Eastern Turkey ( 4:02 mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d-7zDrHPqBo

 

 

Göbekli Tepe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Göbekli Tepe: (Temple/Shrine Complex) World Oldest “Known Temple”


Göbekli Tepe [ɡřbe̞kli te̞pɛ] is a hilltop sanctuary erected on the highest point of an elongated mountain ridge in southeastern Turkey, some 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) northeast of the town of Şanlıurfa (formerly Urfa / Edessa). The site, currently undergoing excavation by German and Turkish archaeologists, was most likely erected by hunter-gatherers about the 9th millennium BCE (c. 11,000 to 13,000 years ago). Together with Nevalı Çori, it has revolutionized understanding of the Eurasian Neolithic.
 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%B6bekli_Tepe

 

http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/turkeygobekli.htm

 

   

 

The extraordinary archaeological site of Göbekli Tepe in southern Turkey. Built some 11,600 years ago, it is revolutionizing theories on the development of agriculture, religion, and civilization.

 

In the article, author Charles C. Mann writes, "Göbekli Tepe is the oldest known example of monumental architecture—the first structure human beings put together that was bigger and more complicated than a hut. When these pillars were erected, so far as we know, nothing of comparable scale existed in the world."

 

People must have gathered from far-flung settlements to erect the first known temples. Using flint tools, they carved pillars and shaped blocks for walls mortared with clay. When a new temple was completed, the old one was buried. How the temples were used is unknown.

 

In this gallery, explore the sights of Göbekli Tepe in its heyday, with the largest and oldest circle completed—and another under construction—as people go about various tasks related to this enormous undertaking.

 

Göbekli Tepe - 12,000 Years Old Unexplained Structure ( 8 mins)

Göbekli Tepe, is a hilltop sanctuary erected on the highest point of an elongated mountain ridge some 15 km northeast of the town of Şanlıurfa, in southeastern Turkey and 500 miles away from Istanbul, Turkey. It is the most astonishing archaeological discovery in modern times and also thought to be the oldest advanced civilization on Earth.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xo0ZkgqM1TE

 

Göbekli Tepe - An Early Zodiak Representation, or, Star Maps of the Palaeolithic and Early Neolithic ?

http://www.ishtarsgate.com/forum/showthread.php?1288-Star-Maps-of-the-Palaeolithic-and-early-Neolithic

 

 

Roman Library of Celsus - Ephesus

 

Odeon

 

Site of the Temple of Artemis in the town of Selçuk, near Ephesus.

 

 

   R uins of the Temple of Hadrian.

 

Historical map of Ephesus,- 1888

 

 

Ephesus is a large archeological site in Aegean Turkey - Ancient City of Anatolia

 

In Kusadasi, in western Turkey, (Turkish: Efes, near the town of Selçuk,). During the Classical Greek era. In the Roman period, Ephesus had a population of more than 250,000 in the 1st century BC, which also made it one of the largest cities in the Mediterranean world

 

Ephesus is considered to be one of the greatest outdoor museums in Turkey due to the variety of structures that have been excavated and remained intact. An ancient story tells how the city of Ephesus was founded. The son of the king of Athens, Androklos, was looking for a site to build a new settlement. He consulted the Oracle of Apollo,

 

The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (completed around 550 BC), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Emperor Constantine I rebuilt much of the city and erected new public baths. Following the Edict of Thessalonica from emperor Theodosius I, the temple was destroyed in 401 AD by a mob led by St. John Chrysostom.[3] The town was partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614 AD

 

   

Marbel Road

 

 

 Gate of Augustus.

 

Ephesus Turkey (9 mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b6_m3u53iO4&feature=related

 

 

 

Paving stone in the ancient Hittite city of Hattusa - Turkey

 

 

 

 

Hittite Statues of the Sky God and Goddess 

Tesub and Hepet - The Hittites occupied what is now Turkey nearly 4000 years ago. The earliest-known inhabitants of the region, their origins are not known. Ancient Hittite records show that their language, literature, and system of government were highly developed.

 

 

 

Ancient Hittite Ruins – Anatolia - Central Turkey
 
Ancient Hittite ruins. Giant terracotta storage jars half buried in the ground at the ancient Hittite settlement of Hattusa, near Bogazkale, Turkey.

 The Hittites were a Bronze Age civilisation from Anatolia, whose capital Hattusa was established around the 18th Century BC.

The ancient Hittite capital extends over, and spills into a deep gorge and rock, looking north on a broad cultivated valley. The knowledge we have about the Hittites has come almost exclusively from written records found in Bogazkale. We know these texts, that in the middle of the second millennium BC, the political and social structure of these people had developed around the person of the king of the Hittites in Bogazkale, and there was administrative in society, religious and military groups. The capital was named the Hattus Hattusa, the name given to the area by the Hatti people who lived there when the Hittites moved in. From the earliest record found in Hittite archives, we know that Hattusa was devastated in the beginning of the century 18 BC by the forces of Kussara Anitta. It is believed that was the largest of the Hittite kings during the time of the city-state. The same document indicates that Anitta put a curse on the city in the sense that “He who shall be king after me, if your resettlement in Hattusa will be beaten by the storm god.” The Hittite people actually return to their capital after the death of Anitta. The entire city has taken on aspects of the Hittite civilization to 1700 BC C.


   

The Small Gallery has the best preserved frieze depicting the numerous Hittite gods.

 

http://www.arabicmusicvideos1.com/ancient_cultures.htm

 

Hattusas ( mins)

Around a hundred and fifty kilometres east of the Turkish capital of Ankara in the highlands of Anatolia, was the heart of the once powerful Hittite Empire. In the Upper City, two viaducts crossed a man-made gorge in order to connect it with the Sari Kale and Yenice Kale castles. A wall close to seven kilometres long enclosed the whole city. It was built mainly of solid stone blocks and, in the upper sections, mud tiles. The Lower City was dominated by great temples. In addition to the holy district it also embraced the magazine, a large storehouse on each side of which was a wide street. Its rooms were up to three stories high and built of wood and clay with plastered, painted walls. With a little imagination it is possible to become better acquainted with the ruins of this ancient Hattasus metropolis whose power and influence reigned supreme over the great Hittite Empire.

 

     
 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QilanXXGrTU

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5BfPUDRWcDU&feature=related

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The ruins of the ancient city of Hierapolis on the hill Pamukkale, Turkey

 

 

Ancient Ruins of Hierapolis - Theatre

 

 

Ancient city of Hierapolis

 

Hierapolis (Greek: Ἱεράπολις 'sacred city') was an ancient Greco-Roman city in Phrygia located on hot springs in southwest Anatolia. Its ruins are adjacent to modern Pamukkale, Turkey. Hierapolis is located in the Menderes River valley adjacent to the modern Turkish city of Pamukkale and nearby Denizli. It is located in Turkey's inner Aegean region, which has a temperate climate for most of the year. See Pamukkale#Geology for more detail.

Hierapolis is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The hot springs there have been used as a spa since the 2nd century BCE, and people came to soothe their ailments, with many of them retiring or dying here. The large necropolis is filled with sarcophagi, including the Sarcophagus of Marcus Aurelius Ammianos.

The great baths were constructed with huge stone blocks without the use of cement, and consisted of various closed or open sections linked together. There are deep niches in the inner section of the bath, library, gymnasium and other closed or open locations. The complex, which was constructed in the 2nd century BCE, constitutes a good example of vault type architecture. The complex is now an archaeological museum.

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hierapolis

 

Turkey's Pamukkale - Calcium Deposit  Natural Pools and the Ruins of of Hierapolis ( 6 mins)

 

The stunning white calcium pools, which cling to the side of a ridge, have long been one of the most famous picture postcard views of Turkey. Pamukkale, literally meaning "cotton castle", is also the site of the ancient city of Hierapolis of which there are many interesting ruins, and is a very popular destination for a short visit.

Pamukkale was formed when a spring with a high content of dissolved calcium bicarbonate cascaded over the edge of the cliff, which cooled and hardened leaving calcium deposits. This formed into natural pools, shelves and ridges, which tourists could plunge and splash in the warm water.

Hotels were springing up from the 1970s to cater for the large influx of tourists, and shortly afterwards UNESCO declared it a World Heritage Site. But by the 1990s, this took its toll on the state of the calcium pools and restrictions were placed on these travertine terraces. Many hotels were knocked down, visitors are only allowed on major paths around the sites, and must remove footwear to stand on the calcium deposits. This seems to have been a successful move, as the water supply is now used for preservation and some of the damaged calcium deposits have been strengthened.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9uqFUc_K5wk

 

     

 Pamukkale - Ancient Calcium Deposit  Natural Pools     -    Hierapolis Ancient Thermal Pool with Fallen Ruins

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Temple of Athena overlooking the Aegean in Assos - Turkey


The temple was built originally about 540-530 BC. Assos is south of Canakkale Many pieces of the temple are scattered in museums (Istanbul Archaeological Museum, Louvre, Boston Museum of Fine Arts). The temple is built on a high cliff overlooking the sea. Here is the way the temple looks now. -
 

 

 

 

 

   

 

Lycian Tombs - Turkey

 

Along the way, guests captured photos of the famous Lycian rock-cut tombs carved into the cliffs overlooking the river. Dating back to 400 B.C., these tombs were designed to resemble the entrances of Hellenistic temples. The tombs were most likely reserved for the dignitaries and the wealthy elite of this ancient civilization. Dalyan River.
 
Lycia came to occupy most of the Teke Peninsula at the southwest corner of Anatolia, roughly defined as the area of Turkey lying south of a line drawn from Dalyan to Antalya.

 

http://www.lycianturkey.com/lycian_tombs.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

Fairy Chimneys - Cappadocia Area


Millions of years ago the three volcanoes in the area did their thing and covered a lot of country in ash, as they do. The ash managed to pack down to fairly solid ground but where it was covering basalt rock it eroded a lot faster than the rock and formed what the locals now call Fairy Chimneys.
 
Where the conical mounds had a wide enough base the Christians from 5th and 6th centuries dug into them to build houses and hide from the Romans and Arabs . They managed to build whole cities underground that housed 200 000 people for long periods of time
 

 

 

 

 

Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology – Turkey

The Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology, which received a special commendation in 1995 as a European Museum of the Year, was established in the Bodrum Castle in 1964. Initially, the restoration of the castle was the priority; later, exhibition halls were created in the available space. The museum exhibits several collections of ancient artifacts including relics retrieved from local shipwrecks, divided over 14 exhibition departments in the museum.

http://www.bodrumturkeytravel.com/history-culture/bodrum-museum-underwater-archaeology/
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turkish Museum

  - Ancient Exibitions
http://www.pbase.com/andrys/ankara

 

 

 

Gold plates with Phoenician
and Etruscan writing

 

We are often told that the Phoenicians invented the alphabet, though some debate this. Regardless of who put pen to papyrus to create it, the Phoenician contribution was none-the-less major and critical. They were the major sea-traders of the Mediterranean, and they went everywhere.

 

Phoenician Stone Tablets

 

 

 

 

Phoenician Alphabet

 

The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BCE, was a non-pictographic consonantal alphabet, or abjad.[1] It was used for the writing of Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language, used by the civilization of Phoenicia. It is classified as an abjad because it records only consonantal sounds, with the addition of matres lectionis for some vowels.

Phoenician became one of the most widely used writing systems, spread by Phoenician merchants across the Mediterranean world, where it was assimilated by many other cultures and evolved. The Aramaic alphabet, a modified form of Phoenician, was the ancestor of modern Arabic script, while Hebrew script is a stylistic variant of the Aramaic script. The Greek alphabet (and by extension its descendants such as the Latin, the Cyrillic and the Coptic), was a direct successor of Phoenician, though certain letter values were changed to represent vowels.

As the letters were originally incised with a stylus, most of the shapes are angular and straight, although more cursive versions are increasingly attested in later times, culminating in the Neo-Punic alphabet of Roman-era North Africa. Phoenician was usually written from right to left, although there are some texts written in boustrophedon.

In 2005, UNESCO had registered the Phoenician alphabet into the Memory of the World Programme as a heritage of Lebanon.

 

When the Phoenician alphabet was first uncovered in the 19th century, its origin was unknown. Scholars at first believed that the script was a direct variation of Egyptian hieroglyphs.[3] This idea was especially popular due to the recent decipherment of hieroglyphs. However, scholars could not find any link between the two writing systems. Certain scholars

 

Spread of the alphabet and its social effects

The Phoenician adaptation of the alphabet was extremely successful, and variants were adapted around the Mediterranean from about the 9th century BC, notably giving rise to the Greek, Old Italic, Anatolian and Paleohispanic scripts. The alphabet's success was due in part to its phonetic nature; Phoenician was the first widely used script in which one sound was represented by one symbol. This simple system contrasted with the other scripts in use at the time, such as Cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphs, which employed many complex characters and were difficult to learn.
 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenician_alphabet


 

http://seoklee.wordpress.com/2011/03/11/creation-of-the-phonetic-alphabet-1050-b-c/

 

 

 

 

Jordan

 

  Petra Monastery

 

 

 

 

 

 

Petra Monastery – Carved into Stone Mountain
 
Petra, an ancient city in Jordan, is an amazing architectural marvel which gained international recognition not only for its spectacular beauty of a vast city carved into the red rock face dating back to the 6th century BC but it has been described by UNESCO as “one of the most precious cultural properties of man’s cultural heritage”. UNESCO listed Petra as a World Heritage Site in 1985. The site has featured prominently in many feature films, such as Steven Spielberg’s movie Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. In 2007 Petra was listed in second place for the New Seven Wonders of the World, complementing the growing fame of this unique site.
 

PETRA (Jordan) ( 3:50 mins)

 

Petra (from πέτρα "petra", rock in Greek; Arabic: البتراء, Al-Butrā) is an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. It is famous for having many stone structures carved into the rock. The long-hidden site was revealed to the Western world by the Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in 1812


http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=VAXu4ODpqmk

 

Seven Wonders of the World – Petra ( mins)

 

Petra is a historic and archaeological city in the Jordanian governorate of Ma'an that has rock cut architecture and water conduits system. Established sometime around the 6th century BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans, it is a symbol of Jordan as well as its most visited tourism attraction. It lies on the slope of Mount Hor in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. Petra was chosen as one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in 2007 and a World Heritage Site since 1985. Petra was chosen by the BBC as one of "the 40 places you have to see before you die".

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBqOx4jbaxU&feature=player_embedded

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Karak - Jordan

 

http://www.jordantours-travel.com/cms/index.php/trave-destinations-/karak

 

http://www.lessing-photo.com/search.asp?a=L&lc=202020206DFA&ln=Shobeq+(Montreal)+fortress%2C+Shobeq%2C+Jordan%2Ckingdom&p=1

 

http://www.lessing-photo.com/search.asp?a=1&kc=20202020862B&kw=SALADIN%2C+SULTAN&p=1&ipp=

 

The view to the south-west of Kerak Castle.

http://girlsoloinarabia.typepad.com/girl_solo_in_arabia/2007/01/the_castle_of_r.html

 

 

 

 

 

 Prehistoric Archeology in Jordan

 

 

 

Safawi Wheel 6 – c. 35 m diameter; six spokes, five internal Cairns

 

Drawing of Wheel types in

Harrat ash-Shaam, Jordan

 

 

 

 

AN AERIAL SURVEY CONTRIBUTION TO PREHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY IN JORDAN, 1998
 

Stone wheels
David Kennedy at the University of Western Australia in Perth is an armchair archaeologist. He has just found thousands of ancient stone structures in the Middle East that are reminiscent of the Nazca lines of Peru – simply by using Google Earth and the help of satellite-mapping technologies and vintage aerial photographs.
 
Originally thought to be houses, these stone wheels are now believed to have a spiritual purpose. According to David Thomas at LaTrobe University in Melbourne, Australia, wheels were left by ancient cultures throughout the world, from the Atacama desert in Chile to the Sahara in northern Africa.
 
Wheels found in the Arabia peninsula are between 20 and 70 metres in diameter. They are usually found in isolation, but sometimes occur in groups. The 13 wheels in this photograph were discovered around the Azraq oasis in Jordan.

 

 

The wheel-houses have a variety of forms but are stone built and generally curvilinear with a number of internal divisions. There are also hut circles which are not contained within a stone wall or walls. The wheel-houses at Azraq are in a close physical association with the kites and the significance of this has yet to be proven, but field work by Derrick Riley in 1981 has provided some prehistoric artifacts (see also Helms 1981, 46) indicating a prehistoric date. Examination by Kennedy in 1994 recovered numerous flints and pottery of the Roman and early Islamic periods. Work in the region by Betts has also indicated a prehistoric date, perhaps as early as the 6th millennium BC (Betts 1998). When flying over the sites today it is possible to see that the wheelhouses are often re-used as pens for sheep and goats by the Bedouin

 

 

   Babylonian World Map

 

 

 

 

Babylonian World Map (British Museum)
A unique ancient map of the Mesopotamian world

 
This tablet contains both a cuneiform inscription and a unique map of the Mesopotamian world. Babylon is shown in the centre (the rectangle in the top half of the circle), and Assyria, Elam and other places are also named. The central area is ringed by a circular waterway labelled 'Salt-Sea'. The outer rim of the sea is surrounded by what were probably originally eight regions, each indicated by a triangle, labelled 'Region' or 'Island', and marked with the distance in between. The cuneiform text describes these regions, and it seems that strange and mythical beasts as well as great heroes lived there, although the text is far from complete.
The regions are shown as triangles since that was how it was visualized that they first would look when approached by water.
 
The map is sometimes taken as a serious example of ancient geography, but although the places are shown in their approximately correct positions, the real purpose of the map is to explain the Babylonian view of the mythological world.

 

http://www.livius.org/ea-eh/edges/edges.html

 

 

 

 

Iraq – Ancient Mesopotamia

 

The earliest literature found so far comes from a Sumerian city not far from Nippur, now in the Maysan province of Iraq.

 

The Flood Tablet / The Gilgamesh Tablet excavated from the Library of Ashurbanipal, housed at the British Museum.
 

 

Sumerian Language

 

 

 

Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran.
 

An Ancient Mesopotamian Library
 
The importance of Ashurbanipal's Library can not be overstated. It was buried by invaders centuries before the famous library at Alexandria was established and gives modern historians much information about the peoples of the Ancient Near East.
 
One would find some 1,200 texts written on those tablets, including the standard Akkadian version of Gilgamesh, the Babylonian myth of creation Enuma Elish, and a nearly complete list of ancient Near-Eastern rulers. The tablets even came with accompanying citations that acted as a table of contents. Most of it is now in the possession of the British Museum or the Iraq Department of Antiquities.
 
The Library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh is perhaps the most compelling discovery in the Ancient Near East. There have been over 30,000 clay tablets uncovered in Ashurbanipal’s library, providing archaeologists with an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian literary, religious and administrative work. The library also included hymns and prayers, medical, mathematical, ritual, divinatory and astrological texts, alongside all sorts of administrative documents, letters and contracts. Among the findings was the Enuma Elish, also known as the Epic of Creation…


http://allmesopotamia.wordpress.com/

 

 

 

 

 

 

The earliest cuneiform texts include pictographic signs that represent economic information. This clay tablet (3100 BC) describes the amount of barley needed

for a particular field: 15 units to sow

 about 16 acres

 

 

Seals and Cylinder Seals

 

 

This limestone cylinder seal (left), also a form of Mesopotamian prewriting, likely indicated administrative control over goods. When rolled on wet clay, it makes the impression on the right. – Seals were also used in establishing “Contracts”.
 
How Cuneiform “Works” – Tokens - Script - Seals

http://notsincenineveh.wordpress.com/page/2/
 

 

 

Relief depicting transportation of cedar wood by boats

 

 

 

 

Transport of Cedar & Trade
 .
- The Assyrians built the first aqueducts and paved roads.
- The Babylonians had a postal system
- The Sumerians established trade links with cultures in Anatolia, Syria, Persia and the Indus Valley.
- First Wheels and Wheeled Vehicles


http://factsanddetails.com/world.php?itemid=1515&catid=56&subcatid=363

 

 

 

Ashurbanipal, portrayed as a priest.

becomes king of Assyria in 668 BC

 

 

 

 

Ashurbanipal depicted riding and hunting

in a relief carving from the North Palace

 of Nineveh, ca. 640 BC

 

Ashurbanipal- The King - Black Obelisk

 

 

King Ashurbanipal - King of Assyria


He was an Assyrian king, the son of Esarhaddon and the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (668 BC – c. 627 BC). He established the first systematically organized library in the ancient Middle East, the Library of Ashurbanipal, which survives in part today at Nineveh.
 
Ashurbanipal was proud of his scribal education. He asserts this in the statement: “I Assurbanipal within [the palace], took care of the wisdom of Nebo, the whole of the inscribed tablets, of all the clay tablets, the whole of their mysteries and difficulties, I solved.”.[18] He was one of the few kings who could read the cuneiform script in Akkadian and Sumerian, and claimed that he even read texts from before the great flood. He was also able to solve mathematical problems. During his reign he collected cuneiform texts from all over Mesopotamia, and especially Babylonia, in the library of Nineveh.
 
The Assyrian empire fell in 609 BC, in the years after his death. During the final decade of his rule, Assyria was quite peaceful, but the country apparently faced a serious decline. Documentation from the last years of Ashurbanipal's reign is very scarce but the latest attestations of Ashurbanipal's reign are of his year 38 (631 BC), but according to later sources he reigned for 42 years (627 BC).

 

http://allmesopotamia.wordpress.com/

 

  King Ashurbanipal in a royal chariot, inspecting   Ashurbanipal celebrates in his garden with his queen the victory over Elam
booty from a victory over Elam.


    

This relief shows the sack of Susa in 647 BC.    North Palace at Nineveh, circa 645 BCE, showing lyre and double flute players.

 

 

The Kudurru (stele) of King Meli-Shipak II
At the  Louvre.

 

 

 

 

 

 

King Meli-shipak presents his daughter to the goddess Nannaya
 

The Kudurru (stele) of King Meli-Shipak II (1186–1172 BCE).the king presents his daughter to the goddess Nannaya. Kassite period, taken to Susa in the 12th century BC as spoils of war. The symbols of the three great astral divinities – the star of Ishtar, the crescent of the Moon-god Sin, and the Sun of Shamash – feature in the sky. .
 
This kudurru is remarkable in that in recording the royal gift, it represents the entire pantheon of gods who preserve the order of the world. The artist has used a formula that was later to be developed on other kudurrus, representing the symbols associated with each deity in hierarchical rows.
 

http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/kudurru-king-melishipak-ii

 

 

 

Other  Kudurru

Titles of ownership placed under the protection of the divinities, these stone steles, sculpted and inscribed on both sides, record gifts decreed by the monarch. On this boundary stone, all of the great divinities represented by their emblems appear in a true symbolic microcosm, organised into a hierarchy of superimposed registers.

 

 

 

 

Hammurabi stele at American Museum of Natural History, New York,

 


The Code of Hammurabi - Babylonian Law Code
 
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code, dating back to about 1772 BC. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a human-sized stone stele and various clay tablets. The Code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" (lex talionis) as graded depending on social status, of slave versus free man.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_of_Hammurabi
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Civilizations- Mesopotamia [1/6] ( 10 mins)


Mesopotamia, or 'the country between two rivers', is the oldest civilization to have flourished at the confluence of two rivers: the Tigris and the Euphrates. The Mesopotamians included various peoples, the Sumerians, the Babylonians, the Akkadians, who coexisted and succeeded one another, mixing and inter-relating in a Near East with a wide range of racial facets. These different peoples, who once lived along the banks of the two rivers, have left behind an archaeological heritage of inestimable value.How did they flourish in such a hostile environment? Where did their wealth come from? And how did this perfectly structured civilisation finally fade and disappear for ever?

This popular series gives new insights into some of the most influential civilizations to shape the world as we know it. To understand where we are now, it might help to understand where we have been.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yc8m9DHxH4E

 

The Lost History of Man - Article

http://talc.site88.net/sumer.htm

 

 

 

  Ruins in Anbar, Iraq

 

 

 

Drought Reveals Ancient Ruins in Anbar, Iraq


Iraq is suffering the worst drought in decades, and as the waters of the Euphrates recede, ancient ruins are surfacing for the first time since Saddam Hussein dammed the area in the mid-1980′s.
 
Ratib says that at least 75 archeological sites had been partially excavated before the area was flooded. They ran the gamut of civilizations — from 3,000 B.C. to the Sumerian and Roman periods. Ancient Jewish settlements were also submerged in the area. But because of the receding waters, Ratib has been able to access some sites for the first time — including, for instance, a cliff with a series of pre-Christian tombs carved into its face. Though they have been heavily damaged by the water, Ratib says they still have value. But it’s not only previously discovered archaeological sites that the drought has made accessible.
 
Ratib and a colleague are suddenly excited by something they’ve seen on this particular day. They kneel next to what looks like an old stone wall, shards of pottery everywhere. Ratib says he believes it is a Roman-era irrigation ditch.
 
 “I’ve never seen this site before,” he says. “When we excavated this area decades ago, this was all buried underneath the soil, but the receding waters uncovered it.”

 

http://www.thehistoryblog.com/archives/2289

 

 

 

 

Syria

 

The Ancient City of Mari - Syria

 

 

A depiction of the ancient city of Mari, located in present-day Syria

 

 

The ancient city of Mari, located in present-day Syria


Mari (modern Tell Hariri, Syria) was an ancient Sumerian and Amorite city, located 11 kilometers north-west of the modern town of Abu Kamal on the western bank of Euphrates river, some 120 km southeast of Deir ez-Zor, Syria. It is thought to have been inhabited since the 5th millennium BC, although it flourished with series of superimposed palaces that spans a thousand years, from 2900 BC until 1759 BC, when it was sacked by Hammurabi.
 

 

       

 

 

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