The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens, is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.

 

The “Porch of the Maidens”, with six draped female figures as supporting columns,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Greece - Structures

 

Ancient Greece is the civilization belonging to the period of Greek history lasting from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity and beginning of the Early Middle Ages with the rise of the Byzantine era following Justinian I.  At the center of this time period is Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC, at first under Athenian leadership successfully repelling the military threat of Persian invasion. The Athenian Golden Age ends with the defeat of Athens at the hands of Sparta in the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC. Following the conquests of Alexander the Great, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea.

 

Classical Greek culture had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean region and Europe, for which reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of Western civilization.

 

     

 

Ancient Greek Temples ( 3 mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gAb6hCkBJ7A&feature=fvwrel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pericles ( 495 B.C - 429B.C.)

in Greek means 'Surrounded by Glory' ,

he became an influential statesman for

Athens

 

 

 

Athens: Ancient Greek Supercity ( 46 mins)

 

This documentary examines the city state of Athens during the period of Pericles, their democratically elected leader for 30 consecutive years and never ostracized. Pericles had a vision of what Athens should look like and this episode tries to show you what it was in historical context.

Athens at that time was also a direct democracy and it was during this period that it achieved its height and its glory, but it was very short-lived. Due to disease and military conflict, Athens eventually had to surrender to Sparta.

The documentary focuses on the architectural, cultural and military history of the period. It begins by looking at the Acropolis but more specifically at the Parthenon, one of the most perfect buildings ever constructed and the most duplicated building and architectural style for hundreds of years worldwide. For people who have never seen the Parthenon in person or for those who have, this episode provides you a closer look at the interior of the building, how it was constructed and it's long history, a few of the things that you may have missed on your visit to the Parthenon! They end the segment by showing you how it most likely would have looked like in the past with its statues and its elaborately painted exterior.

It also examines in-depth the Agora just below the Acropolis -- the heart of ancient Athens. It looks at its uses, some of the important buildings that were located there and it provides you with a graphical reconstruction of the area and its buildings. because other than the well-preserved Temple of Hephaistos, everything else is in ruins or not discernible without a guide book or knowledge of the area.

The episode also looks at the military aspect of Athens. Due to Athens' impending conflict with Sparta, Pericles decided that it was necessary to build and reinforce its walls that protected its access to the sea and its navy. Although the massive walls were never breached by the Spartans (who never had siege warfare at the time), they no longer exist today. The episode also tries to reconstruct graphically how these walls may have looked like during Pericles' time.

The show also goes into detail on the Athenian navy and their famous triremes which were critical in protecting Athens and in its long war with Sparta.

In summary, this is an documentary about ancient Athens. It does a great job in showing you what currently exists, the history and the historical background behind what they are going to talk about and they provide excellent graphical representations of what Athenian buildings, structures and triremes would have looked like in the past. If you have visited Athens, you will appreciate this documentary and be able to view these impressive monuments from a different perspective.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Da6DWvppeA&feature=related

 

Pericles

Pericles promoted the arts and literature; it is principally through his efforts that Athens holds the reputation of being the educational and cultural centre of the ancient Greek world. He started an ambitious project that generated most of the surviving structures on the Acropolis (including the Parthenon).

 

http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/People/Pericles/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pericles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Ancient Greek Agora at Athens

 

The ancient Greek Agora was a central part of life in ancient Greece. It was a Market Place, a Political Center and a Social Center. The literal meaning of the word is "gathering place" or "assembly". The agora was the center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the city.It is located to the northwest of the Acropolis and is bounded on the south by the hill of the Areopagus and on the west by the hill known as the Colonus Agoraeus.

 

It contained all the essential ingredients for the people of that time to conduct their lives. Shops, meeting places, law courts, libraries, baths, halls for public functions with collonades (stoas), meeting place for those holding public office - these and many other buildings and areas served the needs of the local people.

 

A complex site

 

The ancient greek agora at Athens is one of the largest remaining from the classical world. It's not easy for a visitor to understand, because much of the remains are just marks on the ground, or wall bases. To complicate matters further, the agora was in use for over 1000 years. During that time buildings were regularly added and demolished.

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Agora. Temple Hephaisteion

 

 

 

   

The Temple of Hephæstus from Mars Hill – at the Agora in Ancient Athens

 

The Temple of Hephæstus in central Athens, Greece, is the best-preserved ancient Greek temple in the world, but is far less well-known than its neighbor, the Parthenon. The temple is also known as the Hephæsteum or Hephæsteion. It is sometimes called the Theseum, due to a belief current in Byzantine times that the bones of the legendary Greek hero Theseus were buried there; in fact the bones alleged to be those of Theseus were buried in the 5th century BC at another site nearer to the Acropolis.

 

The temple is located about 500m north-west of the Acropolis and about 1km due west of the modern center of Athens, Syntagma Square. It was built in about 449 BC on what was then the western edge of the city of Athens, in a district which contained many foundries and metalwork shops. It was therefore dedicated to Hephæstos, the god of blacksmiths and metallurgy. It was designed by Ictinus, one of the architects who worked on the Parthenon. It stands on a slight rise and in ancient times commanded a fine view of the Agora.

 

 

The Tholos at the base of Mount Parnassus:   3 of 20 Doric columns.

 

 

Athena Pronaia Sanctuary at Delphi.

 

 

The mountain-top stadium at Delphi, far above the temples/theater below

 

 

 

 

Delphi - Greece

http://www.grisel.net/delphi.htm

 

http://www.olympia-greece.org/delphi.html

 

Delphi - is both an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in the valley of Phocis.

 

In Greek mythology, Delphi was the site of the Delphic Oracle, the most important oracle in the classical Greek world, and a major site for the worship of the god Apollo after he slew the Python, a dragon who lived there and protected the navel of the Earth. Python (derived from the verb pythein, "to rot") is claimed by some to be the original name of the site in recognition of the Python that Apollo defeated. The Homeric Hymn to Delphic Apollo recalled that the ancient name of this site had been Krisa

 

Oracle

 

Delphi is perhaps best known for the Oracle at the Sanctuary that was dedicated to Apollo during the classical period.

 

    

 

 

Theatre

 

The ancient theatre at Delphi was built further up the hill from the Temple of Apollo giving spectators a view of the entire sanctuary and the valley below. It was originally built in the 4th century BC but was remodeled on several occasions since. Its 35 rows can seat 5,000 spectators.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delphi

 

Delphi: Bellybutton of the Ancient World – BBC ( 57 mins)

The site of the ancient Greek oracle at Delphi managed to survive as the centre of the ancient world for more than 1,000 years, developing a reputation as a gateway into the supernatural and a hotbed of political conflict.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=En25VkbXE8E&feature=related

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Archaeological Museum of Delphi

 

Delphi Museum was originally built in 1903

http://www.ancient-greece.org/museum/muse-delphi.html

 

http://www.delphi-tours.com/delphi-museum-archaeological/

 

Model of the archaeological site of Delphi in the Delphi Museum

 

   

The large Sphinx of Naxos sitting on an Ionic column about 10m tall. circa 560 B.C.  & Charioteer -at Delphi Museum

 

 

Oracle stone, Delphi, Delphi, Greece.

 

 

Temple of Delphi. The Oracle stone was

 where the arrow is.

 

 

 

Treasury of Delphi. Offerings to the Oracle were kept here.

 

Oracle sitting on her tripod with her supplicant

 

 

Oracle Stone, Delphi, Delphi, Greece.

The 3 holes were for the tripod on which she sat, and the larger opening was to allow the fumes to rise.

 

Delphi is perhaps best-known for the oracle at the sanctuary that became dedicated to Apollo. -The priestess of the oracle at Delphi was known as the Pythia. Apollo spoke through his oracle, who had to be an older woman of blameless life chosen from among the peasants of the area. The sibyl or prophetess took the name Pythia and sat on a tripod seat over an opening in the earth. When Apollo slew Python, its body fell into this fissure, according to legend, and fumes arose from its decomposing body. Intoxicated by the vapors, the sibyl would fall into trance, allowing Apollo to possess her spirit. In this state she prophesied. She spoke in riddles, which were interpreted by the priests of the temple, and people consulted her on everything from important matters of public policy to personal affairs.

http://scottfredrickson.com/?p=368

 

http://www.crystalinks.com/delphi.html

 

The Delphi Oracle ( 6 mins)

At nearly 3000 years old The Delphic Oracle is one of the most important historic sites in the world. Not only was it one of the great wonders of the ancient world, but what took place here determined the fate of history that effects the whole human race to this day. - The God Apollo deemed Delphi as the centre of the world. The cone shaped object you see in the video is the naval of the world.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q6AjBDFTAo4

 

History Channel - The Oracle Of Delphi ( 9 mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQy1AFEPK9g&feature=related

 

Secrets at Delphi ( 43 mins)

For close to a thousand years, Delphi ruled supreme as the religious heart of the ancient Greek Empire. Kings, generals, priests and common folk undertook the arduous journey to the mountains of central Greece to consult with the famous oracle of Delphi.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3EV5eeeGfcc&feature=related

 

 

The Omphalos in museum of Delphi.

 

 

The omphalos stone – the belly button of

the earth.

 

 

 

The Omphalos at Delphi

 

An Omphalos is an ancient religious stone artifact, or baetylus. In Greek, the word Omphalos means "navel" (compare the name of Queen Omphale). According to the ancient Greeks, Zeus sent out two eagles to fly across the world to meet at its center, the "navel" of the world. Omphalos stones used to denote this point were erected in several areas surrounding the Mediterranean Sea; the most famous of those was at the oracle in Delphi. It is also the name of the stone given to Cronus in Zeus' place in Greek mythology.

 

Most accounts locate the Omphalos in the temple adyton near the Pythia. The stone itself (which may have been a copy) has a carving of a knotted net covering its surface, and has a hollow centre, which widens towards its base

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omphalos

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cyclopean Wall of Oracle Delphi - Greece

 

Cyclopean wall of oracle Delphi - Greece - characterized by the use of massive stones of irregular shape and size of passage –

Polygonal retaining wall at Delphi, Greece, said to have been built in the 6th century BC

 

http://davidpratt.info/andes2.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theatre of Dionysus, Athens, Greece

The details remaining in the theatre of Dionysus are amazing; from the checkerboard floor to the carved front row seats reserved for the gods.

 

 

 

 

 

The Ruins of Ancient Sparta

 

 

 

 

 

 

The 'Exedra' platform on which the judges sat,        

 

 

The Ancient Greek Olympian Stadium

The stadium at the archaeological site of Olympia, Greece is located to the east of the sanctuary of Zeus. It was the location of many of the sporting events at the Ancient Olympic Games.

 

The stadium was a holy place for the ancient Greeks, as this is where sporting activities dedicated to Zeus were held. The stadium was originally located within the temenos, with spectators able to view races from the slopes of Mt. Kronos. It was gradually relocated east until it reached its present location in the early 5th century BC. The stadium is connected with the sanctuary by a vaulted stone passageway.

 

   

The Gate to the Stadium

 

 

 

Delphi Hippodrome

 

A hippodrome

 

 

 

Chariot Racing

 

It was one of the most popular ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine sports. Chariot racing was often dangerous to both driver and horse—they frequently suffered serious injury and even death—but generated strong spectator enthusiasm. In the ancient Olympic Games, as well as the other Panhellenic Games, the sport was one of the most important equestrian events.

 

It is unknown exactly when chariot racing began, but it may have been as old as chariots themselves. It is known from artistic evidence on pottery that the sport existed in the Mycenaean world,[1] but the first literary reference to a chariot race is the one described by Homer, at the funeral games of Patroclus.

 

   

 

 

Greek philosophers engaged in discussion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Greek – Philosophers & Scientists

 

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BCE and continued through the Hellenistic period, at which point Ancient Greece was incorporated in the Roman Empire. It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, logic, biology, rhetoric, and aesthetics.

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greek_philosophy

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Ancient_Greek_philosophers

 

Pythagoras                Aristotle           Socrates          -     Plato …

 

 

 

 

 

 

Attic red-figure pottery, kylix by the Triptolemos Painter, ca. 480 BC (Paris, Louvre)

 

 

 

 

Ancient Greek – Art

 

 

 

Ancient Greek Art Pt I ( 3 mins)

Ancient Greek Art Pt I

Ancient Greek Art Pt II (  3 mins)

Ancient Greek Art Pt II

 

The Development of Ancient Greek Art ( 12 mins)

A video clip detailing how ancient Greek art within a few generations underwent a complete and unparallelled transformation that changed art forever, becoming the golden standard not only in ancient times but also for Renaissance artists 2 millennia later.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tS0u8XpLoTI&feature=related

 

 

Tragic Comic Masks Hadrian's Villa mosaic.

 

 

 

 

The Dionysus Theater at the foot of the Athenian Acropolis

 

 

 

 

Greek Theatre

 

The theatre of Ancient Greece, or ancient Greek drama, is a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece between c. 550 and c. 220 BC. The city-state of Athens, which became a significant cultural, political and military power during this period, was its centre, where it was institutionalized as part of a festival called the Dionysia, which honored the god Dionysus. Tragedy (late 6th century BC), comedy (486 BC), and the satyr play were the three dramatic genres to emerge there. Athens exported the festival to its numerous colonies and allies in order to promote a common cultural identity. Western theatre originated in Athens and its drama has had a significant and sustained impact on Western culture as a whole.

http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Theatre/

 

 

 

 

A  woman playing the Kithara

 

 

 

 

Orpheus playing the Lyra

 

 

 

 

 

Music of Ancient Greece

 

The music world owes much to the ancient Greeks. In fact the word "music" is derived from the nine muses of ancient Greece, who were goddesses ruling over the arts and sciences. Modern day musicians refer to their muse, which is someone who has an influence on another person's creative work. Different musical terms such as melody, tune, rhythm and others have their roots in the Greek language. Pythagoras, who was the father of music theory, was Greek. However, with the fall of ancient Greece and the collapse of the Roman and Byzantine empires, Greek music hibernated for several centuries until it was reborn in the 19th century. - The ancient Greeks had musical instruments such as drums, cymbals and pipes. The earliest known Greek music was intertwined with Greek poetry. Dancing with the lyre (phorminx) was used to accompany poets composing melodies from short repeated phrases.

 

The music of ancient Greece was almost universally present in society, from marriages and funerals to religious ceremonies, theatre, folk music and the ballad-like reciting of epic poetry. It thus played an integral role in the lives of ancient Greeks. There are significant fragments of actual Greek musical notation[1][2] as well as many literary references to ancient Greek music, such that some things can be known—or reasonably surmised—about what the music sounded like, the general role of music in society, the economics of music, the importance of a professional caste of musicians, etc. Even archaeological remains reveal an abundance of depictions on ceramics, for example, of music being performed. The word music comes from the Muses, the daughters of Zeus and patron goddesses of creative and intellectual endeavors.

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_ancient_Greece

 

http://www.shoshone.k12.id.us/greek/music.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Greece – Sports

 

   

 

http://ancientweb.org/explore/country/Greece

 

http://www.history.com/topics/peloponnesian-war/photos#greek-architecture

 

 

Jury Duty Systems

 

 

Ostraka

 

Pot Chards

 

 

 

Voting in Democracy and Jury Duty Systems in Ancient Athens

 

Jury Duty Systems

http://blog.thejurorinvestigates.com/2009/09/15/jury-duty-in-ancient-athens.aspx

 

The Nature of Athenian Democracy

Voting in the ecclesia was originally by voice; then by ballot. Voting by ballot involved using a white or a black bean or stone (white for yes, black for no – hence the term ‘blackballed’).

http://cliojournal.wikispaces.com/The+Nature+of+Athenian+Democracy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clothing of Ancient Greek Women

 

Basic Clothing of the Fifth Century

 

·    Himation

·    Peplos

·    Chiton        

                           

http://www.richeast.org/htwm/Greeks/costume/costume.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Greece Sandals

 

 

 

 

Trireme - Ancient Battle Ship Reconstruction

 

 

 

 

Ancient Greek Battle Ships

 

The masterpiece of ancient greek shipbuilding was, undoubtedly, the trireme. According to Thucydides it was created by Corinthians at the 7th century BC and at the 6th century BC it was used widely as a war ship. According to another opinion, it was created in the Aegean area at around 530 BC, and its design was influenced by the Phoenicians' ships. Terminally, other scientists claim that Corinthians and particularly Ameinocles, where those who designed this ship and probably Polycrates was the first who used the trireme on behalf of the Pentekonters. The triremes were lengthy and narrow ships with 3 rows of oarsmen, one or two velums and a complicate gear…

 

http://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/00368/trireme.html

 

 

 

 

Archimedes' screw was operated by hand

and could raise water efficiently

 

 

 

 

 

Archimedes Screw

 

Archimedes screw,  machine for raising water, allegedly invented by the ancient Greek scientist Archimedes for removing water from the hold of a large ship. One form consists of a circular pipe enclosing a helix and inclined at an angle of about 45 degrees to the horizontal with its lower end dipped in the water; rotation of the device causes the water to rise in the pipe. Other forms consist of a helix revolving in a fixed cylinder or a helical tube wound around a shaft.

 

The Archimedes' screw, also called the Archimedean Screw or Screw-pump, is a machine historically used for transferring water from a low-lying body of water into irrigation ditches. The screw pump is commonly attributed to Archimedes on the occasion of his visit to Egypt, but this tradition may reflect only that the apparatus was unknown before Hellenistic times and introduced in his lifetime by unknown Greek engineers.

 

 

 

 

Antikythera Mechanism

 

 

 

 

Among the treasures of the Greek National Archaeological Museum in Athens are the remains of the most complex scientific

object that has been preserved from antiquity. Corroded and crumbling from

2,000 years under the sea, its dials, gear wheels and inscribed plates present the historian with  a tantalizing problem.

 

 

 

 

Antikythera “Clock” Mechanism – Ancient Greece

 

More than 21 centuries ago, a mechanism of fabulous ingenuity was created in Greece, a device capable of indicating exactly how the sky would look for decades to come -- the position of the moon and sun, lunar phases and even eclipses. But this incredible invention would be drowned in the sea and its secret forgotten for two thousand years.

This video is a tribute from Swiss clock-maker Hublot and film-maker Philippe Nicolet to this device, known as the Antikythera Mechanism, or the world's "first computer". The fragments of the Mechanism were discovered in 1901 by sponge divers near the island of Antikythera. It is kept since then at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, Greece. For more than a century, researchers were trying to understand its functions. Since 2005, a pluridisciplinary research team, the "Antikythera Mechanism Research Project", is studying the Mechanism with the latest high tech available.The results of this ongoing research has enabled the construction of many models. Amongst them, the unique mechanism of a watch, designed by Hublot as a tribute to the Mechanism, is incorporating the known functions of this mysterious and fascinating ancient Mechanism.

 

http://www.world-mysteries.com/sar_4.htm

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antikythera_mechanism

 

 

 

The Antikythera Mechanism ( 7:52 mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZshnuELoAc

 

Ancient Discoveries - The Antikythera Machine ( 50 mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-KO4-zx9buc

 

 

 

 

 

 

History Channel - Engineering an Empire – Greece ( 44 mins)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JFd_hEQSB28&feature=relmfu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Greeks - Crucible of Civilization ( 2 Hrs: 20 mins)

The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization. PBS Home Video, 2000.

 

The lavish and lengthy production of PBS's The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization is a fitting tribute to the glory of ancient Greece, telling the story of Greek democracy from its first stirrings in 500 B.C. through to the cataclysmic wars that virtually destroyed the empire. It concludes with a fascinating look at how the Greeks were defeated, yet their philosophy endured and changed the world forever. Beautifully photographed, and with intelligent narration delivered by actor Liam Neeson, this two-volume set goes into considerable detail while also being engaging to the eye as well as the mind. The photography at ancient sites is often spectacular and judicious use of actors filmed in re-creations of critical events provide immediacy. Much of the story relates how the Greeks essentially invented politics and democracy, and interviews with prominent scholars of classical history provide insight into the major characters, including Thales, Pericles, and Socrates. The stories of epic battles on land and sea and a thoughtful treatment of the Greek ideals of heroism are presented well. But the documentary particularly succeeds in the latter stages, when the story turns to the downfall of Socrates and a thoughtful explanation of how Greek philosophy transformed civilization.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-VMlkFyFrV4&feature=related

 

 

 

 

 

 

Luxury in Ancient Greece – BBC ( 59 mins)

 

This documentary follows the debate about luxury which convulsed ancient Greece from the beginning of the classical era.

In Athens, it explores the role of luxury in the beginnings of democracy - how certain kinds of luxury came to be forbidden, and others embraced. A simple luxury like meat could unite the democracy, and yet a taste for fish could divide it. Some luxuries were associated with effeminacy and foreigners. Others with the very idea of democracy.

Yet in Sparta, there was a determined attempt to deny luxury, and the guilty contradictions of this eventually brought what had been the most powerful state in Greece to its downfall.

When Sparta was replaced by the Macedon of Philip II, father of Alexander the Great, the absolute luxury of his court set new standards for luxury as political propaganda. Yet the guilty anxiety of ancient Greece could not be suppressed and still affects our ideas of luxury today.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1W4A_NcYOpk&feature=related

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mystical Monuments of Greece ( 43 mins)

Narrated by Leonard Nimoy

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MXorKW8X3Kg&feature=related

 

 

Athens: Ancient Greek Supercity  ( 43 mins)

 

This documentary examines the city state of Athens during the period of Pericles, their democratically elected leader for 30 consecutive years and never ostracized. Pericles had a vision of what Athens should look like and this episode tries to show you what it was in historical context.

Athens at that time was also a direct democracy and it was during this period that it achieved its height and its glory, but it was very short-lived. Due to disease and military conflict, Athens eventually had to surrender to Sparta.

The documentary focuses on the architectural, cultural and military history of the period. It begins by looking at the Acropolis but more specifically at the Parthenon, one of the most perfect buildings ever constructed and the most duplicated building and architectural style for hundreds of years worldwide. For people who have never seen the Parthenon in person or for those who have, this episode provides you a closer look at the interior of the building, how it was constructed and it's long history, a few of the things that you may have missed on your visit to the Parthenon! They end the segment by showing you how it most likely would have looked like in the past with its statues and its elaborately painted exterior.

It also examines in-depth the Agora just below the Acropolis -- the heart of ancient Athens. It looks at its uses, some of the important buildings that were located there and it provides you with a graphical reconstruction of the area and its buildings. because other than the well-preserved Temple of Hephaistos, everything else is in ruins or not discernible without a guide book or knowledge of the area....

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Da6DWvppeA

 

 

 

The book "The Method" - It contains his concepts of Advanced Mathematics

 

 

 

 

 

Archimedes' Secret (BBC Documentary)   ( 48 mins)

 

This is the story of a book "The Method" - Palimpsest - that could have changed the history of the World.  ...and his moment of "EUREKA!!!"

 

To the untrained eye, it is nothing more than a small and unassuming Byzantine prayer book, yet it sold at Christies for over $2m. For faintly visible beneath the prayers on its pages are other, unique, writings - words that have been lost for nearly two thousand years.

The text is the only record of work by one of the world's greatest minds - the ancient Greek, Archimedes - a mathematical genius centuries ahead of his time. Hidden for a millennium in a middle eastern library, it has been written over, broken up, painted on, cut up and re-glued. But in the nick of time scientists have saved the precious, fragile document, and for the first time it is revealing just how revolutionary Archimedes' ideas were. If it had been available to scholars during the Renaissance, we might have reached the Moon over a hundred years ago.

The trail begins in the tenth century, when a scribe made a unique copy of the most important mathematics that Archimedes ever developed. For 200 years the document survived, but the mathematics in it was so complex that no one paid it any attention. So when one day a monk was looking for some new parchment - an expensive commodity at the time - to write a new prayer book, the answer seemed obvious. He used the Archimedes manuscript. He washed the Greek text off the pages, cut them in half, rebound them, and turned the Archimedes manuscript into an everyday prayer book. As he piously wrote out his prayers, he had no idea of the genius he was obliterating. ...

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=giUk9leseBs

 

Dr. William Noel, is Curator of Manuscripts and Rare Books at The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore...

 

http://www.uoguelph.ca/arts/noel-astra

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thira - Ruins at Island of Santorini - Ancient Thira/Thera - Greece

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Santorini Island Ruins of Thira

 

SANTORINI'S COASTLINE FROM ANCIENT THIRA SETTLEMENT IN THE AREA OF MESA VOUNO

 

Ancient Thira : The Settlement

 

The second important period in the history of Santorini is linked with the city of Ancient Thira. The excavation there, begun in 1896 by Baron Hiller von Gaertringen in the area of Mesa Vouno, revealed ruins of town which bore evidence of settlement as early as 9th century BC. The mountain of Profitis Ilias, Santorini's highest peak runs eastward into the lower rocky outcropping of Mesa Vouno. These two mountains are joined by a ridge named Sellada.  - Mesa Vouno, with an altitude of 369 metres, extends from west to south and its steep slopes plunge to coast at Kamari to the north side and Perissa to the south

 

RELIEF SCULPTURES FROM THE TEMENOS OF ARTEMIDOS : LION OF APOLLO & EAGLE OF ZEUS

 

 

 

Santorini - Thira ( 10 mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uq7uvr4wtyc

 

 

 

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