Antikythera Mechanism

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antikythera “Clock” Mechanism – Ancient Greece

 

More than 21 centuries ago, a mechanism of fabulous ingenuity was created in Greece, a device capable of indicating exactly how the sky would look for decades to come -- the position of the moon and sun, lunar phases and even eclipses. But this incredible invention would be drowned in the sea and its secret forgotten for two thousand years.

This video is a tribute from Swiss clock-maker Hublot and film-maker Philippe Nicolet to this device, known as the Antikythera Mechanism, or the world's "first computer". The fragments of the Mechanism were discovered in 1901 by sponge divers near the island of Antikythera. It is kept since then at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, Greece. For more than a century, researchers were trying to understand its functions. Since 2005, a pluridisciplinary research team, the "Antikythera Mechanism Research Project", is studying the Mechanism with the latest high tech available.The results of this ongoing research has enabled the construction of many models. Amongst them, the unique mechanism of a watch, designed by Hublot as a tribute to the Mechanism, is incorporating the known functions of this mysterious and fascinating ancient Mechanism.

 

 

The Antikythera Mechanism ( 7:52 mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZshnuELoAc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sumerian Tablets - Sumerian Drum Seal  - Sumerian Block printing in blind on clay

 

 

 

 

 

The ancient battery
in the Baghdad Museum

 

 

 

The Baghdad Battery

In 1936, while excavating ruins of a 2000-year-old village near Baghdad, workers discovered mysterious small vase. A 6-inch-high pot of bright yellow clay dating back two millennia contained a cylinder of sheet-copper 5 inches by 1.5 inches. The edge of the copper cylinder was soldered with a 60-40 lead-tin alloy comparable to today's solder. The bottom of the cylinder was capped with a crimped-in copper disk and sealed with bitumen or asphalt. Another insulating layer of asphalt sealed the top and also held in place an iron rod suspended into the center of the copper cylinder. The rod showed evidence of having been corroded with an acidic agent.   The Baghdad Battery, sometimes referred to as the Parthian Battery, is the common name for a number of artifacts created in Mesopotamia, possibly during the Parthian or Sassanid period (the early centuries AD), and probably discovered in 1936 in the village of Khuyut Rabbou'a, near Baghdad, Iraq. These artifacts came to wider attention in 1938 when Wilhelm König, the German director of the National Museum of Iraq, found the objects in the museum's collections. In 1940, König published a paper speculating that they may have been galvanic cells, perhaps used for electroplating gold onto silver objects.[2] This interpretation continues to be considered as at least a hypothetical possibility. If correct, the artifacts would predate Alessandro Volta's 1800 invention of the electrochemical cell by more than a millennium.

http://www.world-mysteries.com/sar_11.htm

 

 

The disc, which is 32 centimetres (virtually one foot) in diameter and weighs about 2 kg, it is made of

bronze and is inlaid with

decoration made of gold leaf.

 

 

Interestingly, the 30-degree angle made

by the 'crack line' reinforces its

connection with the sun, as the angle corresponds to the sun's movement

in two hours, and the ecliptic (the

apparent path of the sun in the sky)

 is astrologically divided into twelve

30-degree segments, etc.

 

 

 

German Nebra Sun Disc

 

The Nebra sky disk is a bronze disk of around 30 cm diameter, with a blue-green patina and inlaid with gold symbols. These are interpreted generally as a sun or full moon, a lunar crescent, and stars (including a cluster interpreted as the Pleiades). Two golden arcs along the sides, marking the angle between the solstices, were added later. A final addition was another arc at the bottom surrounded with multiple strokes (of uncertain meaning, variously interpreted as a Solar Barge with numerous oars, as the Milky Way, or as a rainbow).

 

The disk is attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt in Germany, and associatively dated to c. 1600 BC. It has been associated with the Bronze Age Unetice culture.

 

The disk is unlike any known artistic style from the period, and had initially been suspected of being a forgery, but is now widely accepted as authentic.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebra_sky_disk

 

 

Secrets of the Star Disk 1 of 3 ( 15 mins)

The Nebra Sky Disk is a bronze disk with a blue-green patina (originally black) and inlaid with gold symbols. These are interpreted generally as a sun or full moon, a lunar crescent, and stars (including a cluster interpreted as the Pleiades). Two golden arcs along the sides, marking the angle between the solstices, were added later. A final addition was another arc at the bottom surrounded with multiple strokes (of uncertain meaning, interpreted as a Sun ship with numerous oars). The disk is attributed to a site near Nebra in Germany, and associatively dated to c. 1600 BCE. It has been associated with the Bronze Age Unetice culture….

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ndhw7aX_ME8

 

Secrets of the Star Disk 2 of 3 ( 12 mins)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DAyUpT9nhLQ

 

Secrets of the Star Disk 3 of 3 ( 6 mins )

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=My_DMV5jMnk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Genetic Disc – Colombia

 

An extraordinary and awesome Disc in black stone that on its two facades encloses the “Secrets of the Life”. An astonishing knowledge that brings havoc in the researchers and scholars comunity. This "Genetic Disc" that measure 22 centimeters in diameter and of 2 Kg in weight, was found in Colombia by Jaime Gutierrez-Lega. It is now exposed to the Museum of Natural Sciences of Vienna, Austria and analyzed by Dr. Vera M.F. Hammer

 

European Exopolitics Summit 2009 in Barcelona - Klaus Dona 1-5

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k0kA60m6D7M&feature=related

 

Klaus Dona Interview by Project Camelot

http://projectavalon.net/lang/en/klaus_dona_2_interview_transcript_en.html

 

 

 

 

Invention of Wheel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Classical Greek four-spoked

chariot-wheel

 

"An ancient wheel."

 

 

 

Invention of Wheel

Arguably the most important mechanical invention of all time, the wheel has been used by man since nearly the beginning of civilization. Most primitive technologies since the invention of the wheel have been based on its principles, and since the industrial revolution, the wheel has been a basic element of nearly every machine constructed by mankind. The exact time and place of the invention of the wheel has been disputed, but its beginnings can be seen across ancient civilizations.If it were possible, we would like to have one of the very first wheels created. The wheel (invented about 5000 BCE) is an amazing invention for it's simplicity and practicality. The people who made and used the first wheels, must have imagined it as a great way to make work and moving things easier. Therefore we definitely believe it belongs in our library of imagination.

History

  • As with much ancient technology and culture, the invention of the wheel is believed to have occurred in Mesopotamia, in the Middle East, anywhere from the fifth to the third millennium B.C., during the Ubaid period. The earliest known use of the wheel, based on clay tablets and drawings, is believed to have been as a potter's wheel. These wheels would have been used to spin clay for potters to form into other useful goods. Thus, the invention of the wheel likely benefited manufacturing even before it did transportation.

Time Frame

  • The use of the wheel as a technology for transportation probably came about much later--between 3700 and 3200 B.C. Early Mesopotamian chariots and wagons usually included a primitive set of four wheels and two axles. Wheels with spokes emerged in Egypt around 2000 B.C. and found their way to Europe around the same time. These additional developments around the world may or may not have been influenced by inventions in Mesopotamia.

Geography

  • For any of various speculated reasons, the wheel did not reach Western Asia or India, via the Indus Valley, until the third millennium B.C., and did not reach China until around the year 2000 B.C. It is arguable whether the wheel was developed independently in East Asia or appeared after crossing the continent over the Himalayas. Some have guessed that the wheel may not have reached the western hemisphere until around 1500 B.C., and may not have been fully integrated until the introduction of Europeans to the continent.

Features

  • The early forms of the wheel were likely made of stone or wood. They were often large blocks of stone fashioned into circular shapes, or flat wooden slabs rounded and cut with holes in the middle for an axle. These wheels were used for toys, transportation, weapons and tools, and for many other purposes.

Significance

  • The invention of the wheel can certainly not be attributed to any one culture, as many of them seem to have developed it independently. The invention was likely to happen eventually as each culture reached a level of sophistication or interaction, but this simple act of using a rolling apparatus as a tool or form of transportation has transformed the world since its inception. Used in machines and technology ever since, the wheel has allowed the world to reach the level of technology it enjoys in the 21st century.

 

Facts About Ancient Mesopotamia

            *The wheel was invented in Mesopotamia. It developed from the pottery wheel.”

 

Other Facts

 Evidence of wheeled vehicles appears from the mid 4th millennium B.C., near-simultaneously in Mesopotamia, the Northern Caucasus and Central Europe. The question of who invented the first wheeled vehicles is far from resolved. The earliest well-dated depiction of a wheeled vehicle—a wagon with four wheels and two axles—is on the Bronocice pot, clay pot dated to between 3500 and 3350 B.C. excavated in a Funnelbeaker culture settlement in southern Poland. Some sources say the oldest images of the wheel originate from the Mesopotamian city of Ur A bas-relief from the Sumerian city of Ur—dated to 2500 B.C.—shows four onagers (donkeylike animals) pulling a cart for a king. and were supposed to date sometime from 4000 BC. [Partly from Wikipedia]

 

In 2003—at a site in the Ljubljana marshes, Slovenia, 20 kilometers southeast of Ljubljana— Slovenian scientists claimed they found the world’s oldest wheel and axle. Dated with radiocarbon method by experts in Vienna to be between 5,100 and 5,350 years old the found in the remains of a pile-dwelling settlement, the wheel has a radius of 70 centimeters and is five centimeters thick. It is made of ash and oak. Surprisingly technologically advanced, it was made of two ashen panels of the same tree. The axle, whose age could not be precisely established, is about as old as the wheel. It is 120 centimeters long and made of oak. [Source: Slovenia News]

 

The wheel and axle were found near a wooden canoe. Both the wheel and the axle had been scorched, probably to protect them against pests. Slovenian experts surmise that the wheel they found belonged to a single-axle cart. The aperture for the axle on the wheel is square, which means the wheel and the axle rotated together and, considering the rough ground, the cart probably had only one axle. We can only guess what the cart itself was like. The Ljubljana marshes are a perfect place for old objects to be preserved. There have been many finds uncovered in this area. Apart from the wooden wheel, axle and canoe, there have been innumerable objects found which are up to 6,500 years old.

 

A wheel dated to 3000 B.C., was found near Lake Van in eastern Turkey. Wheels with similar dates have been found in Germany and Switzerland. One very old wheel was a wooden disc discovered at an archeological sight near Zurich. The wheel now can be seen in the Zurich museum.

 

 

 

 

Bronze Age disk wheel as depicted on the Standard of Ur (ca. 2500 BC)

 

 

 

The Wheel Timeline

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheel

 

 

The Dropa Stones

 

 

 

 

 

The Dropa Stones

 

What are the Dropa Stones?

 

The Story of how the stones were found is kinda up in the air. The major story states that a Chinese archaeologist named Chu Pu Tei, found the stones in 1938/37 while he was looking at some caves. Inside the caves he found a series of graves that each contained a skeleton measuring a little over a meter in height (about 3 feet for the non-metric speaking). Buried with these tinny people were mysterious grooved stones, that became known as the Dropa Stones.

 

http://archyfantasies.wordpress.com/2012/04/14/the-10-most-not-so-puzzling-ancient-artifacts-the-dropa-stones/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Colombia Ancient Air Crafts? In Bogota’s Gold Museum

Pre-Columbian aircraft-like models, State Bank of Bogota, Colombia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rocket ship? - the Istanbul Archaeology Museum in Turkey

 

Is this a replica of an ancient single-seat rocket ship?

 

That’s what it looks like to Zecharia Sitchin, the leading authority and scholar on the Ancient Astronaut theory. Hidden away in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum in Turkey for a quarter of a century, Sitchin recently convinced the Museum that this artifact may indeed be ancient, and not the modern forgery they concluded it must be, simply because our current view of our ancient history doesn’t include rocket-ships.

 

In his article in Atlantis Rising Magazine, Issue 15, Sitchin describes this object as, "A sculpted scale model of what, to modern eyes, looks like a cone-nosed rocket-ship… Powered by a cluster of four exhaust engines in the back surrounding a larger exhaust engine, the rocket-ship has room for a sole pilot—actually shown and included in the sculpture."

 

He describes the pilot as sitting with legs folded toward his chest, and wearing a one-piece "ribbed pressure suit" which becomes boots at the feet, and gloves at the hands, and points out that since the pilot’s head is missing, we cannot know whether the pilot wore a helmet, goggles, or other headgear. The artifact measures 23 centimeters long, 9.5 cm high, 8 cm wide, or 5.7 inches long, 3.8 inches high, and 3.5 inches wide.

 

Sitchin spent years tracking down the artifact, until he located it at the Archaeology Museum in Istanbul. It was excavated at Toprakkale, a city known in ancient times as Tuspa, where the kingdom of Urartu reigned briefly over 2500 years ago. The museum curators decided this small artifact must be a forgery because it differs from the era’s style, and more importantly, it looks like a space capsule.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Melting Ice Uncovering Ancient Artifacts Faster than They Can Be Recovered

As temperatures rise in the Yukon's Mackenzie Mountains, veritable treasure troves of ancient artifacts have been uncovered by melting ice. Now, high in the mountains of northern Canada, archeologists are racing to recover items from these sites that have been entombed in ice for thousands of years.

 

Ice-patch archaeology is a new phenomenon that began gaining momentum in 1997 after shepherds discovered a 4,300-year-old-dart in a freshly uncovered mound of ancient caribou dung. Researchers flocked to the area and noticed that dung was layered with bands of seasonal snow—and many of the bands contained artifacts.

 

http://www.treehugger.com/culture/melting-ice-uncovering-ancient-artifacts-faster-than-they-can-be-recovered.html

 

 

 

 

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