structure of part of a DNA - Animation
The structure of the DNA double helix. The atoms in
the structure are colour coded by element and the
detailed structure of two base pairs is shown in the
DNA Structure – Genes
Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the
genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all
known living organisms (with the exception of RNA viruses). The DNA
segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but
other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in
regulating the use of this genetic information. Along with RNA and
proteins, DNA is one of the three major macromolecules that are
essential for all known forms of life.
DNA consists of two long polymers of simple units called
nucleotides, with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups
joined by ester bonds. These two strands run in opposite directions
to each other and are therefore anti-parallel. Attached to each
sugar is one of four types of molecules called nucleobases
(informally, bases). It is the sequence of these four nucleobases
along the backbone that encodes information. This information is
read using the genetic code, which specifies the sequence of the
amino acids within proteins. The code is read by copying stretches
of DNA into the related nucleic acid RNA in a process called
Within cells DNA is organized into long structures called
chromosomes. During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated
in the process of DNA replication, providing each cell its own
complete set of chromosomes. Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants,
fungi, and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus
and some of their DNA in organelles, such as mitochondria or
chloroplasts. In contrast, prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) store
their DNA only in the cytoplasm. Within the chromosomes, chromatin
proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. These compact
structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins,
helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed.
April 1953, Francis Crick (left) and James Watson (right) published
a paper in Nature describing the double helix structure of DNA.
Double Helix: Discovery that led to 60 years of Biological
Six decades after DNA's shapely curves were first revealed, no
aspect of biology is now above modification, remix or redesign
Human Genome Project
The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an
international scientific research project with a primary goal of
determining the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA,
and of identifying and mapping the approximately 20,000–25,000 genes
of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint.[
The project began in October 1990 and was initially headed by
Aristides Patrinos, head of the Office of Biological and
Environmental Research in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of
Science. Francis Collins directed the US National Institutes of
Health (NIH) National Human Genome Research Institute efforts. A
working draft of the genome was announced in 2000 and a complete one
in 2003, with further, more detailed analysis still being published.
A parallel project was conducted outside of government by the Celera
Corporation, or Celera Genomics, which was formally launched in
1998. Most of the government-sponsored sequencing was performed in
universities and research centres from the United States, the United
Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany and Spain. Researchers continue to
identify protein-coding genes and their functions; the objective is
to find disease-causing genes and possibly use the information to
develop more specific treatments. It also may be possible to locate
patterns in gene expression, which could help physicians glean
insight into the body's emergent properties.
While the objective of the Human Genome Project is to understand the
genetic makeup of the human species, the project has also focused on
several other nonhuman organisms such as E. coli, the fruit fly, and
the laboratory mouse. It remains one of the largest single
investigative projects in modern science.
Key findings of the draft (2001) and complete (2004) genome
1. There are approximately 23,000
genes in human beings, the same range as in mice and roundworms.
Understanding how these genes express themselves will provide
clues to how diseases are caused.
2. The human genome has significantly more segmental
duplications (nearly identical, repeated sections of DNA) than
other mammalian genomes. These sections may underlie the
creation of new primate-specific genes
3. At the time when the draft sequence was published fewer than
7% of protein families appeared to be vertebrate specific
All About The Human Genome Project (HGP)
The Human Genome Project (HGP)
was one of the great feats of exploration in history -
an inward voyage of discovery rather than an outward
exploration of the planet or the cosmos; an
international research effort to sequence and map all of
the genes - together known as the genome - of members of
our species, Homo sapiens. Completed in April 2003, the
HGP gave us the ability, for the first time, to read
nature's complete genetic blueprint for building a human
You will find access to a wealth of information on the
history of the HGP, its progress, cast of characters and
Dr Tim Hubbard
The first printout of the human
genome to be presented as a series of books, displayed at the
Wellcome Collection, London
DNA - Dr Tim Hubbard – Article
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Research Limited
The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute is a
charitably funded genomic research centre located in Hinxton, nine
miles south of Cambridge in the UK.
A leader in the Human Genome Project, we are now focused on
understanding the role of genetics in health and disease. Our
passion for discovery drives our quest to uncover the basis of
genetic and infectious disease. We aim to provide results that can
be translated into diagnostics, treatments or therapies that reduce
global health burdens.
DNA Structure ( 2 mins)
DNA Structure - Artwork slides (
Explanation of the structure of DNA. Artwork is courtesy of
McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Molecular Visualizations of DNA (
Amazing CGI visualization of molecular biology's central dogma. It
shows animations of DNA coiling, replication, transcription and
translation. -It was created by Drew Berry of the Walter and Eliza
Hall Institute of Medical
Can Cosmic Rays change Human DNA
Can Cosmic Rays change Human DNA ? -
Decoding Evolution: Destiny of Humankind ( 8 mins)
Is our fate indeed written in the stars? http://make-sustainable-choices.com/16/cosmic-rays-and-human-dna/
Is there a connection between climate change & the human DNA?
Ever since the discovery in the 1920s that radiation can cause gene
mutations, scientists speculated on the role that high energy cosmic
rays might have played in evolution. With this video we are touching
a subject which many consider as controversial. Our personal view on
that is that it shouldn't be regarded that way, as "action and
interaction" is the physics law governing all that's happening in
the Universe. Just keep an open mind and start by listening to some
great scientists who tried to explain their findings in an easy to
- Cosmic Radiation (galactic radiation) reaches Earth every
- Human DNA is holding all information needed to build and "run"
the human body
- Human DNA is a long polymer made from repeating units called
- The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of
- Molecules do interact with radiation
- The mechanism of how does highly energetic radiation -
interact with the DNA structure is not yet properly understood
- Molecules interact at atomic level with incoming radiation
- The effects depend on the characteristics (frequency, speed of
particles, etc) of the disturbing radiation and how is it
absorbed or deflected by the "guest" structure
Re-coding To 12 Strand DNA Sequence
And Entering Into The Photon Belt
… As the process of rebuilding our light bodies continues we will
slowly begin to notice the effects of becoming fully conscious or
multi-dimensional. This state will come about when our 12 strands of
DNA have finally been re-fused, reconnected and activated. We will
then experience life within the consciousness of multi-
dimensionality. In this level of consciousness we could live in the
third dimension while retaining our connection and relationships
with beings in the higher realms. We will no longer be cut off from
other dimensions as we presently are and we will operate from a
state of heart centred compassion, (Christ consciousness). This will
happen regardless of which dimension we find ourselves inhabiting.
Eventually we will learn how to live successfully in a galactic
society and ultimately in a universal society. At the present time
most humans have two active strands of DNA, represented by an
intertwined double helix. Some persons have developed and integrated
three or more strands and a large number of new babies presently
being born (the crystal children) have many strands of active DNA. A
simple blood test can verify this fact….
The DNA Strands and Endocrine
Each of the following twelve DNA strands represents one of the
twelve aspects of multi- dimensional consciousness.
· Strand 1: Courage to move ahead
and integrate our fears
· Strand 2: Ability to focus on something and follow it to
· Strand 3: Maintaining gender balance between male /female
· Strand 4: Balance between our energy field and the physical
· Strand 5: Living peacefully in a state of acceptance
· Strand 6: Strength to stand in one’s truth regardless of the
· Strand 7: Ability to accept both our dark and light sides
· Strand 8: Ability to hold personal boundaries regardless of
· Strand 9: Ability to accept and live within a diverse
· Strand 10: Ability to tune into and listen to one’s soul or
· Strand 11: Power to envision, create and manifest these
visions in 3D
· Strand 12: Ability to be accepting, kind and appreciate the
value in all things
The Inter-dimensional 12
Strand DNA Activation
Still to be discovered by science is the fact that your DNA has a
much greater purpose than simply being a blueprint for your body.
The Genome Project decoded approximately 3% of the total physical
DNA. The remaining 97% was then termed "junk", inferring it has no
purpose. The truth is that the human body is extremely efficient and
anything that is of no use becomes atrophied and is evolved out of
existence within a few generations.
If 97% of our DNA is junk, why do we still have it?
That so-called "junk DNA" in your body contains all your history
since you first incarnated onto this planet, many lifetimes ago.
It's where your akashic record, the record of your Soul, resides.
Our DNA has been called a living library because of the wealth of
information stored on it.
It's time. The energy on the planet is calling for us all to raise
It's time. After eons of being disconnected from the spiritual
portion of your DNA, you can once again experience being your Divine
It's time. Step up to the next level of your spiritual evolution
with the activation of your 12 DNA strands, the 12 layers of
interdimensional energy that surround them, and your Akashic
Additional Good Info >>>
WATCH THE LIVE 2nd DNA ACTIVATION FOR ASCENSION WEBINAR VIDEO
ABOVE TO EXPERIENCE THIS WORK.
Article& Video >>>
DNA Discoveries: Our DNA can be
Influenced and Reprogrammed by Words and Frequencies
Discoveries: You are about to read one of the most innovative,
fascinating, world-transforming summaries of DNA research ever put
on the web… Unfortunately it’s not well-documented or linked to
other sites backing up the research so you may want to do your own
investigation to confirm (or deny) this material.
Russian DNA Discoveries
Esoteric and spiritual teachers have known for ages that our body is
programmable by language, words and thought. This has now been
scientifically proven and explained.
Human DNA acts like a biological version of the Internet — and it is
superior to the artificial one in many ways.
The latest Russian scientific research directly or indirectly
explains phenomena such as clairvoyance, intuition, spontaneous /
remote acts of healing, self-healing, affirmation techniques,
unusual light/auras around people (namely spiritual masters), the
mind’s influence on weather patterns and much more.
In addition, there is evidence for a whole new type of medicine in
which DNA can be influenced and reprogrammed by words and
frequencies — WITHOUT cutting out and replacing single genes.
‘Junk DNA’ Sequences resemble
Only 10% of our DNA is being used for building proteins. It is this
subset of DNA that is of interest to western researchers, and it is
being examined and categorized. The other 90% of the molecule is
considered to be “junk DNA.”
The Russian researchers, however, were convinced that nature was not
so dumb. They joined linguists and geneticists in a venture to
explore that 90% of “junk DNA.” Their results, findings and
conclusions are simply revolutionary! According to their findings,
our DNA is not only responsible for the construction of our body,
but also serves as a means of data storage and communication. The
Russian linguists found that the genetic code — especially in the
apparent “useless” 90% — follows the same rules as our human
languages. They compared the rules of syntax (the way in which words
are put together to form phrases and sentences), semantics (the
study of meaning in language forms) and the basic rules of grammar.
They found that the alkalines of our DNA follow a regular ‘grammar’,
and do have set rules just like our languages. Therefore, human
languages did not appear by coincidence, but appear to be a
reflection of the inherent patterns in our DNA.
DNA can be changed by sound
patterns – including spoken language
The Russian biophysicist and molecular biologist Pjotr Garjajev and
his colleagues also explored the vibrational behavior of DNA. In
brief, the bottom line was: “Living chromosomes function just like a
holographic computer, using endogenous DNA laser radiation.” This
means that they managed, for example, to modulate certain frequency
patterns (sound) onto a laser-like ray, which then influenced the
DNA frequency — and thus altered the genetic information itself.
Since the basic structures of DNA-alkaline pairs and language (as
explained earlier) are similar, no DNA decoding is necessary. One
can simply use words and sentences of the human language! This, too,
was experimentally proven. Living DNA substance (in living tissue,
not in vitro) will always react to laser beams that have been
modulated by language, and even to radio waves, if the proper
frequencies (sound) are being used. This scientifically explains why
affirmations, hypnosis and the like can have such strong effects on
humans and their bodies. It is entirely normal and natural for our
DNA to react to language.,,,
Evidence Found For Space-Created DNA
Building Blocks ( 3 mins)
Its been speculated for years that the molecules found in meteorites
that carry genetic instructions - the building blocks for life -
were created during their epic flight to their new home, Earth.
Recent scientific analysis supports the claims.
Russians Change DNA with Frequency
Experiments 1 of 2 ( 10 mins)
Russian DNA Discoveries Explain Human Paranormal' Events
Esoteric and spiritual teachers have known for ages that our body is
programmable by language, words and thought. This has now been
scientifically proven and explained.
Russians Change DNA with Frequency Experiments 2/2 ( mins)
Pairs of human chromosomes.
Highlighted in green is alu, a
DNA sequence that distinguishes
primates from other mammals.
Is 90 % of DNA JUNK?? - New
"Junk" DNA: Why non-coding DNA Isn't
The existence of large amounts of
non-coding "junk" DNA (up to 97% in humans) in the genomes of
eukaryotes has been used as an argument against intelligent design
(and the role of a Creator) and as an argument for the random
process of evolution. Two evolutionary theories attempted to explain
the reason for the existence of non-coding DNA. One theory stated
that non-coding DNA was "junk" that consisted of randomly-produced
sequences that had lost their coding ability or partially duplicated
genes that were non-functional. The second theory stated that
non-coding DNA was "selfish", in that it consisted of DNA that
preferentially replicated more efficiently that coding DNA, even
though it provided no selective advantage (in fact was somewhat
detrimental since it was parasitic). There have always been problems
with these arguments, which have been ignored by many of those
making these claims. The main question presented by proponents of
the "junk" or "selfish" DNA theories is, "Why would a perfect God
create flawed DNA which is primarily composed of useless, non-coding
regions?" The definitive answer has finally arrived, although for
many years there have been strong suggestions of what the non-coding
DNA is doing in our genomes....
The trouble with Genes
There were lots of justifications for
dismissing junk DNA as 'junk'. Not only did it lack code words for
amino acids; it turned out 50% of the junk was comprised of inane
These repetitious tracts seemed meaningless. But researchers had a
good notion of what many of them were. Most of the repeats were 'transposons'
or 'jumping genes'.
Jumping genes, which may have originated from invading viruses, have
the ability to copy themselves independently of the rest of the
genome and then become inserted randomly throughout the genome.
Then there was another reason to suspect that much of the DNA of a
species was junk. The total amount of DNA seemed to bear very little
relationship to the complexity of the organism.
An amoeba for instance, had a thousand times more DNA than a human.
Sometimes it seemed cells multiplied, but forgot to divide, ending
up with vast amounts of DNA. It seemed as though DNA just liked to
go along for the ride.
When JUNK DNA isn't Junk!!!
How DNA got to be here ???
DNA, who made it? And if it is DNA that
is creating our universe, then is the fallacy of our universe
created by the same intelligence??
Can we use DNA to bare witness to this intelligence or must we
abandon DNA and use some other means?
Francis Crick even thought DNA was to far advanced a structure to
have evolved on Earth from the primordial environment that preceded
Crick elaborated on Sweden's Gustavs Arrhenius theory of Panspermia,
and suggested that it was
seeded here on Earth by some form of
intelligence from somewhere else in space. He called it
Timothy Leary suggested, that once DNA is seeded, sprouted, and has
evolved to high degrees of intelligence, it will naturally look
inward at itself and decipher the message therein to determine its
purpose. In Leary's mind, he foresaw this purpose as contacting the
original mother for further instructions.
My own hunch is that DNA only being 4 - 6 atoms in width, makes it
the perfect candidate as a conduit that channels information back
from the demension of the imagination in the form of wave/light,
then have this information solidify/crystalize creating the 3rd
Sumerian clues to 2012 DNA change ( 10
A look at how the proof is there that
our DNA has been genetically altered externally,
Soon you’ll be backing up your Hard
Drive using DNA!!
Think the memory card in
your camera is high-capacity? It's got nothing on DNA.
With data accumulating at a faster rate
now than any other point in human history, scientists and engineers
are looking to genetic code as a form of next-generation digital
Now, a team of Harvard and Johns Hopkins geneticists has developed a
new method of DNA encoding
that makes it possible to store more
digital information than ever before. We spoke with lead researcher
Sriram Kosuri to learn why the
future of archival data storage is in genetic code, and why his
novel encoding scheme represents such an
important step toward harnessing DNA's vast storage potential.
The (Theoretical) Solution: The
Advantages of DNA Storage
Archival storage is where DNA comes in. As storage media go, it's
hard to compete with the universal building blocks of life...
The Human Genome is comprised of:
- 2 sets of 23 chromosomes
- 46 chromosomes in all.
Each parent contributes a set.
About 97 percent of the genome
consists of sequences that don't
code for proteins and have
Within the rest of the genome
are estimated 70,000 genes.
Is non-coding DNA expressing a Language?
In the March 1995 issue of "Scientific American", in the article
"Talking Trash" (see below), scientists claim to have found "word"
patterns in the "junk" DNA of man. It seems that this junk DNA
(segments of the DNA genome which do not encode instructions for the
production of proteins) exhibits the same statistical patterns that
are found in written languages. ...
A Scientific Critique of the Function of
Non-Coding DNA Pt 1 ( 7 mins)
A scientific Critique of the Function of Non-Coding DNA Part 2 -
Pt 1 ( 7 mins)
A scientific Critique of the Function of Non-Coding DNA Part 3 -
Pt 1 ( 7 mins)
There Must Be Something
“The Genetic Code is 3.6
billion years old. It’s time for a rewrite.” — Tom Knight, professor
at MIT’s Artificial Intelligence Lab
techniques borrowed from linguistics, Physicist Eugene Stanley, says
he and his colleges… from Harvard Medical School, ‘have shown fairly
clearly that the ‘junk’ has all the features
of a language.’
Electrifying claims for DNA are
Can DNA conduct electricity? Some physicists claim it is a
superconductor. Others believe it does not conduct electricity at
all. And biologists have agonised about how conductivity might
affect its function.
A consensus is emerging. Although the much-hyped molecule can
transport electrons over a length of a few base pairs, allowing it
to deflect oxidative damage away from important sections (New
Scientist print edition, 15 March), it fails to conduct over longer
distances. That will dash long-held hopes that the self-replicating
molecule could be harnessed to make self-assembling nanowires. …
DNA in the material world:
electrical properties and nano-applications. – Article
First Step Towards Electronic DNA Sequencing:
Translocation Through Graphene Nanopores - Article
University of Pennsylvania researchers developed a carbon-based,
nanoscale platform to electrically detect single DNA molecules.
Electric fields push tiny DNA strands through atomically-thin
graphene nanopores that ultimately may sequence DNA bases by their
unique electrical signature.
Achieve Direct Electrical Measurements on Single-Molecule DNA
Nanowerk‘s Michael Berger is reporting about the efforts by a group
of scientists under Dr. Wonbong Choi at Nanomaterials & Device
Laboratory in the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami to study the
electrical properties of a DNA molecule, as a potential electrode
for nano-based electronics. The scientists created an experimental
model composed of a single DNA molecule attached on both sides of
the strand to single wall carbon nanotube electrodes. This molecular
construct is suspended in a “nanoscale trench” for studies of its
the "original four-letter alphabet is now up to at least six,
with the addition of "Z and P"
• April 27, 2013. Research at the
FfAME covering artificial genetic systems was described this
week by Adam Rutherford in The Guardian of London. They note the
"startling progress towards reinventing the language of life", and
that for DNA, the "original four-letter alphabet is now up to at
least six, with the addition of
Z and P
by scientists including Steve Benner at the Foundation for Applied
Molecular Evolution in Florida."
He is the first Human Being in the world
to be born with an Extra Strand of DNA
A two-year-old boy has become the only person in the world to be
diagnosed with an extra strand in his DNA.
Brave Alfie Clamp was born blind and with severe disabilities, which
led doctors to carry out various tests.
genome migration map
breakthroughs in human history -
Mapping of the Human Genome.
A Landmark Study of the Human Journey - NatGeo
LINK to page:
Migration History of Humans: DNA Study Traces Human Origins Across