Visionaries - Inventions & Discoveries



“Only he who can see the invisible can do the impossible.”

—Frank Gaines, Mayor, Berkeley, California



“The universe is not only stranger than we imagine,

it's stranger than we can imagine.” ~ J. B. S. Haldane







Ancient Civilizations Inventions

Chinese - India - Japanese - Roman - Greek - Egyptian



Engineering an Empire >>






































Marco Polo

(1254 –  1324)


Christopher Columbus / Cristoforo Colombo

(1451 –  1506)


Leonardo Da Vinci

( 1452 – 1519 )


Nicolaus Copernicus

( 1473 – 1543 )


Galileo Gallilei

( 1564 – 1642 )









 Johannes Kepler

(1571 – 1630)


Isaac Newton

( 1642 – 1727 )


Benjamin Franklin

( 1706–  1790 )


George Stephenson

(1781 – 1848)


Charles Darwin

  ( 1809 – 1882)









Jules Verne

( 1828-1905 )


Louis Daguerre

(1787 – 1851)


James Clerk Maxwell

 (1831 – 1879)


Karl Friedrich Benz

(1844 – 1929)


Alexander Graham Bell

 ( 1847 – 1922)









Samuel Morse

( 1791-1872)


Thomas Edison



Nikola Tesla

 (1856 - 1943 )


Max Planck

( 1858 –  1947 )


Henry Ford

( 1863 – 1947)









The Wright Brothers

  Wilbur ( 1867 – 1912) and 

 Orville ( 1871 –  1948)


Walter Russell

( 1871 –  1963 )


Albert Einstein

(1879 – 1955)


Dennis Gabor

(1900 - 1979)


Werner Karl Heisenberg
( 1901 – 1976)












Darwin >>>


Invention of Radio

Marconi  ? - 1920




Philo Farnsworth

( 1906 – 1971)


























The Information Age &

IT  Visionaries

 in the Twentieth Century

  Visionaries - Inventors & Inventions
- The Futurists


The Human Genome Discovery













The Prophets of Science Fiction


Greatest Inventions & Discoveries -

 Documentaries & Books


“National Inventors

Hall of Fame”








The Great Writers 




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~ A Visionary sees Light in the Dark." ~




Visionaries - Inventions & Discoveries

- The Ancients









The Archimedes Palimpsest






Circle = Pi Symbol of area >>>

The Archimedes Palimpsest

BBC Horizon - Archimedes Secret ( 48 mins)

 - Manuscript on how he made his discoveries

 - How Catholic church slowed down science progress








Plato (left) and Aristotle ( right)





Aristotle (Ancient Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης [aristotélɛːs], Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC)[1] was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing ethics, aesthetics, logic, science, politics, and metaphysics.

Aristotle's views on the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, and their influence extended well into the Renaissance, although they were ultimately replaced by Newtonian physics. In the zoological sciences, some of his observations were confirmed to be accurate only in the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic.

In metaphysics, Aristotelianism had a profound influence on philosophical and theological thinking. Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as 'المعلم الأول' – "The First Teacher".

His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues (Cicero described his literary style as "a river of gold"), it is thought that the majority of his writings are now lost and only about one-third of the original works have survived


Five elements

Aristotle proposed a fifth element, aether, in addition to the four proposed earlier by Empedocles.

  • Earth, which is cold and dry; this corresponds to the modern idea of a solid.

  • Water, which is cold and wet; this corresponds to the modern idea of a liquid.

  • Air, which is hot and wet; this corresponds to the modern idea of a gas.

  • Fire, which is hot and dry; this corresponds to the modern ideas of plasma and heat.

  • Aether, which is the divine substance that makes up the heavenly spheres and heavenly bodies (stars and planets).

Each of the four earthly elements has its natural place....


Metaphysics - Psychology - Medicine....

Aristotle defines metaphysics as "the knowledge of immaterial being," or of "being in the highest degree of abstraction." He refers to metaphysics as "first philosophy", as well as "the theologic science." ...


Aristotle's Lagoon - Lesvos island Greece  - BBC ( 58 mins)


In the 4th century BC the Greek philosopher Aristotle traveled to Lesvos, an island in the Aegean teeming, then as now, with wildlife. His fascination with what he found there, and his painstaking study of it, led to the birth of a new science - biology. Professor Armand Leroi follows in Aristotle's footsteps to discover the creatures, places and ideas that inspired the philosopher in his pioneering work.






Plato's Account of Atlantis


Plato’s “Dialogues” from

 around 360 B.C.


The capital of Atlantis as described

by Plato.


A 15th-century Latin translation 

of Plato's Timaeus







Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece. He was also a mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science.[4] In the words of A. N. Whitehead:

The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. I do not mean the systematic scheme of thought which scholars have doubtfully extracted from his writings. I allude to the wealth of general ideas scattered through them.

Plato's sophistication as a writer is evident in his Socratic dialogues; thirty-six dialogues and thirteen letters have been ascribed to him. Plato's writings have been published in several fashions; this has led to several conventions regarding the naming and referencing of Plato's texts.[6] Plato's dialogues have been used to teach a range of subjects, including philosophy, logic, ethics, rhetoric, religion and mathematics. Plato is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy.



Plato’s Dialogues


The greek philosopher, Plato, brought to the world, the story of the lost continent of Atlantis. His story began to unfold for him around 355 B.C. He wrote about this land called Atlantis in two of his dialogues, Timaeus and Critias, around 370 B.C. Plato stated that the continent lay in the Atlantic Ocean near the Straits of Gibraltar until its destruction 10,000 years previous.


Debate about whether Atlantis truly existed has lasted for thousands of years. Plato’s “dialogues” from around 360 B.C. are the only known historical sources of information about the iconic city. Plato said the island he called Atlantis “in a single day and night… disappeared into the depths of the sea.”


The huge discovery of a lost world or city that is finally unveiled. This may actually be the rise of Atlantis which has been discussed by many people and prophets over the centuries. This begins to help humanity understand more and brings a whole new bundle of knowledge for us all. The problem I have with this one is exactly how this lost city will be discovered. I have mixed feelings on this and wonder if I may be possibly picking up on two separate major lost cities that are discovered. One part of me feels like this city will be discovered deep in the ocean only a few hundred miles from the coast. Another part of me feels that a large catastrophe such as an earthquake cause a break in the Earth that sucks up a large amount of water therefore unveiling the lost city. I feel these may occur in late 2011 and into the fall of 2012


-          The fact that between the Stone age and the Pyramids in Egypt, there seems to be a big gap in development of any civilization “in between” those two eras, seems very possible that another civilization could have existed then???













Pythagoras of Samos  Pythagóras ho Sámios "Pythagoras the Samian", or simply Πυθαγόρας; c. 570 BC – c. 495 BC)[1][2] was an Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. Most of the information about Pythagoras was written down centuries after he lived, so very little reliable information is known about him. He was born on the island of Samos, and might have travelled widely in his youth, visiting Egypt and other places seeking knowledge. Around 530 BC, he moved to Croton, a Greek colony in southern Italy, and there set up a religious sect. His followers pursued the religious rites and practices developed by Pythagoras, and studied his philosophical theories. The society took an active role in the politics of Croton, but this eventually led to their downfall. The Pythagorean meeting-places were burned, and Pythagoras was forced to flee the city. He is said to have died in Metapontum.

Pythagoras made influential contributions to philosophy and religious teaching in the late 6th century BC. He is often revered as a great mathematician, mystic and scientist, but he is best known for the Pythagorean theorem which bears his name. However, because legend and obfuscation cloud his work even more than that of the other pre-Socratic philosophers, one can give only a tentative account of his teachings, and some have questioned whether he contributed much to mathematics and natural philosophy. Many of the accomplishments credited to Pythagoras may actually have been accomplishments of his colleagues and successors. Whether or not his disciples believed that everything was related to mathematics and that numbers were the ultimate reality is unknown. It was said that he was the first man to call himself a philosopher, or lover of wisdom,[3] and Pythagorean ideas exercised a marked influence on Plato, and through him, all of Western philosophy.









Socrates   (469 BC – 399 BC) was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Many would claim that Plato's dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity.

Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions are asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. Plato's Socrates also made important and lasting contributions to the fields of epistemology and logic, and the influence of his ideas and approach remains a strong foundation for much western philosophy that followed.


Socrates: The Man and His Life  ( 9 mins)


In this lecture we investigate the life of Socrates. In particular, we look at two monumental events in his life: his encounter with the oracle at Delphi which pronounced him to be the wisest of all men, and his trial and subsequent execution.


Socrates: The Socratic Problem  ( 10 mins)


In this lecture we investigate what is known as the Socratic problem, which is the problem as to whether we can arrive at knowledge of the historical Socrates, or whether he will always remain nothing but a work of fiction. We also look at the Socrates of Plato's dialogues, and consider the question as to whether Plato was using Socrates as a mouthpiece for his own views, or espousing the actual ideas of the real Socrates.


The Ideas of Socrates ( 11 mins)






The Ancient Greeks - Episode 3: Empire of Mind (Documentary)  ( 55 mins)


Documentary on the Ancient Greeks, the Crucible of Civilization. Episode 3: Empire of Mind.

It was perhaps the most spectacular flourishing of imagination and achievement in recorded history. In the Fourth and Fifth Centuries BC, the Greeks built an empire that stretched across the Mediterranean from Asia to Spain. They laid the foundations of modern science, politics, warfare and philosophy, and produced some of the most breathtaking art and architecture the world has ever seen. This series, narrated by Liam Neeson, recounts the rise, glory, demise and legacy of the empire that marked the dawn of Western civilization. The story of this astonishing civilization is told through the lives of heroes of ancient Greece. The latest advances in computer and television technology rebuild the Acropolis, recreate the Battle of Marathon and restore the grandeur of the Academy, where Socrates, Plato and Aristotle forged the foundation of Western though. The series combines dramatic storytelling, stunning imagery, new research and distinguished scholarship to render classical Greece gloriously alive.


Socrates, Plato, Aristotle  ( 18 mins)




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Ancient Civilizations Inventions

Chinese - India - Japanese - Roman - Greek - Egyptian




Paper - Gun Powder - Magnetic Compass - Removable Type for Printing - Porcelain - Umbrella - Kites - Agriculture -





Ancient Chinese Inventions



Ancient Chinese Inventions (Complete)  ( 46 mins)


Things Europe Never Invented: Ancient Chinese Inventions  -  Europeans often claim they are superior based on "their" inventions. But as this Discovery Channel documentary shows, Europeans merely copied many inventions that originated in The East.


What the Ancients Knew - China ( 49 mins)


Hosted by Jack Turner. Published by Discovery Channel, 2008. - 21st century China is modernizing at Break neck speed. From AD 600 to 1500, China was the most technologically advanced society on Earth. Early discoveries put China in the vanguard of science and technology in the ancient world and light years ahead of Western cultures for a very long time. But Chinese researchers shared something with those in the West: ancient Chinese alchemists and inventors were trying to solve problems. Advances in Chinese science and technology were spurred by dynastic emperors seeking practical solutions to the challenges of ruling and defending their vast empires. Building on thousands of years of observation and experimentation, ancient Chinese researchers sought to harness the power of the classic elements--earth, wind, water, and fire.


List of Chinese Inventions


Top 10 greatest inventions of ancient China 


900 BC – Chinese develop postal system to deliver written messages






Ancient Egyptian Inventions


What the Ancients Knew - Egypt ( 49 mins)


Hosted by Jack Turner. Published by Discovery Channel, 2008.


More than 5,000 years ago, faith moved mountains--virtually. Observations must have led the ancient Egyptians to believe that the cycles of life were governed by a rule whereby each phenomenon they detected had a counterpart. Life, they concluded, must have an afterlife as its opposite. And to enjoy the afterlife, you needed a body, one that was your own in this life and one that would remain intact. Achieving this goal propelled discoveries and innovations in technology and science. The program traces the scale and effects of ancient Egyptian faith by closely examining the rise and fall of pyramid construction. Viewers will discover how life in ancient Egypt was consumed with the preparation for the afterlife. As the desire and financial ability of Egyptians seeking the afterlife increased, a highly specialized and diversified workforce grew. This helped promote an intricate industry and infrastructure of organization, supply lines, and administration.






Ancient Greek Inventions



What the Ancients Knew - Greece ( 49 mins)


Hosted by Jack Turner. Published by Discovery Channel, 2008.  The Western world is built on the wisdom and traditions of the ancient Greeks, who uncovered the fundamental principles that established the basics of modern technology. Explore their contributions to geometry, astronomy, and physics and take a close-up look at how they applied their knowledge: Thales predicted an eclipse, Pythagoras discovered mathematical correlation between a musical instrument's string length and its tone, Archimedes developed laws of mechanics, and a group of 90 priests made well-informed educated guesses about many things.






Ancient India  Inventions


What the Ancients Knew - India ( 49  mins)


Hosted by Jack Turner. Published by Discovery Channel, 2007. -  India is one of the oldest and richest civilizations in the world. It is home to the world's first planned cities, where every house had its own bathroom and toilet five thousand years ago. The Ancient Indians have not only given us yoga, meditation and complementary medicines, but they have furthered our knowledge of science, math -- and invented Chaturanga, which became the game of chess. According to Albert Einstein, they "taught us how to count", as they invented the numbers 1-9 and 'zero', without which there would be no computers or digital age. Unfairly we call this system of counting Arabic numbers -- a misplaced credit. Two thousand years ago the Indians pioneered plastic surgery, reconstructing the noses and ears on the faces of people who had been disfigured through punishment or warfare. They performed eye operations such as cataract removal and invented inoculation to protect their population from Smallpox, saving thousands of lives.






Ancient Japanese Inventions


What the Ancients Knew - The Japanese  ( 49  mins)


Hosted by Jack Turner. Published by Discovery Channel, 2007. - Japan an island group roughly 120 million people strong, is one of the largest economic powers in the world today. In the eyes of history, Japan's economic success happened overnight and yet it didn't come out of the blue. Cultivating an ancient legacy, modern Japan continues to hold on to its past. And while today many of the ancient crafts are struggling to survive, they provide the foundation for modern Japan's technological success. What the Ancient Japanese knew helps explain the industrial marvel of one of the largest economic powers in the world.


Ancient Earth Quake-Proof Constructions Style!/2013/01/japan-what-ancients-knew.html






Ancient Roman Inventions




What the Ancients Knew - Rome  ( 49  mins)


Hosted by Jack Turner. Published by Discovery Channel, 2008. - More than 2,000 years ago, the Roman army swept across Europe, northern Africa, and the Middle East. Backed by the legions, their military, and engineering skills, the Romans built one of the largest empires in history, dominating as many as 36 modern nations. Technology helped shape the ancient world and reverberates in our Western lifestyle and amenities today. But the Roman legacy is less about invention itself than about the spreading of the ancient technology. Rather than invent most of what they became famous for, the Romans adopted, perfected, and spread their enemies' inventions throughout their empire.






Suppressed Ancient Discoveries From Around the World - Audio

( 1 Hr: 17 mins )


Explorer and archaeologist Jonathan Gray discussed discoveries that demonstrate advanced ancient technology. Because such artifacts don't match current academic beliefs they are often suppressed, with evidence destroyed or hidden, he said, citing the Smithsonian Institution, and countries such as Peru, America, Israel, New Zealand, France, and Australia as being involved in covering-up evidence.

Some of the suppressed ancient discoveries he highlighted:

A kind of glassware in Egypt and Peru that can be bent like plastic.
Screen projectors used in Egyptian temples, with movement and sound simulation.
Artifacts and buildings left on the moon-- Chinese records speak of trips to the moon.
The 'Black Knight' satellite-- ancient races talked about putting up satellites.
An ancient underground complex discovered in Southern California that included star charts on aluminum sheets.
Micro-techology found in Russia, with some objects as small as 1/1000th of an inch.
Maps of the ancient world that showed Antarctica as free of ice and populated.

Gray also spoke about his challenge to the work of Zecharia Sitchin, who contends that an ET race, the Annunaki, visited Earth from the planet Nibiru. Sitchin's translations of Sumerian cuneiform does not match the accepted dictionary meanings, he commented.








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Visionaries - Inventions & Discoveries

- The Renaissance


(The European Renaissance of the 14th–17th Centuries)






Marco Polo








Marco Polo (1254 – January 8-9, 1324) was a Venetian merchant traveler whose travels are recorded in Livres des Merveilles du Monde, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned the mercantile trade from his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, who traveled through Asia, and apparently met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time. The three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 years to find Venice at war with Genoa; Marco was imprisoned, and dictated his stories to a cellmate. He was released in 1299, became a wealthy merchant, married and had three children. He died in 1324, and was buried in San Lorenzo.

His pioneering journey inspired Christopher Columbus and others. Marco Polo's other legacies include Venice Marco Polo Airport, the Marco Polo sheep, and several books and films. He also had an influence on European cartography, leading to the introduction of the Fra Mauro map.





Marco Polo: The Travels of Marco Polo ( 41 mins)

Books of the Marvels of the World (French: Livres des merveilles du monde) or Description of the World (Divisament dou monde), also nicknamed Il Milione ("The Million") or Oriente Poliano and commonly called The Travels of Marco Polo, is a 13th-century travelogue written down by Rustichello da Pisa from stories told by Marco Polo, describing the travels of the latter through Asia, Persia, China, and Indonesia between 1271 and 1291.

It was a very famous and popular book, even in the 14th century. The text claims that Marco Polo became an important figure at the court of the Mongol leader Kublai Khan. However, modern scholars debate how much of the account is accurate and some have questioned whether or not Marco Polo ever actually traveled to the court or was just repeating stories that he had heard from other travellers.







Christopher Columbus  / Cristoforo Colombo









Christopher Columbus (Italian: Cristoforo Colombo; Spanish: Cristóbal Colón; Portuguese: Cristóvão Colombo; before 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an explorer, navigator, and colonizer, born in the Republic of Genoa, in what is today northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola, initiated the Spanish colonization of the New World.

In the context of emerging western imperialism and economic competition between European kingdoms seeking wealth through the establishment of trade routes and colonies, Columbus's speculative proposal, to reach the East Indies by sailing westward, eventually received the support of the Spanish crown, which saw in it a promise, however remote, of gaining the upper hand over rival powers in the contest for the lucrative spice trade with Asia. During his first voyage in 1492, instead of reaching Japan as he had intended, Columbus landed in the Bahamas archipelago, at a locale he named San Salvador. Over the course of three more voyages, Columbus visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America, claiming them for the Spanish Empire.

Though Columbus was not the first European explorer to reach the Americas (having been preceded by the Norse expedition led by Leif Ericson in the 11th century[6]), Columbus's voyages led to the first lasting European contact with the Americas, inaugurating a period of European exploration, conquest, and colonization that lasted for several centuries. They had, therefore, an enormous impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of the spreading of the Christian religion.

Never admitting that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies he had set out for, Columbus called the inhabitants of the lands he visited "indios" (Spanish for "Indians"). Columbus's strained relationship with the Spanish crown and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and dismissal as governor of the settlements on the island of Hispaniola in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the benefits which Columbus and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown.





Leonardo Da Vinci


Self-portrait in red chalk, circa 1512 to 1515


Mona Lisa or La Gioconda (1503–1505/1507)—Louvre, Paris, France




Leonardo Da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519,) was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived.


 According to art historian Helen Gardner, the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent and "his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, the man himself mysterious and remote". While there is much speculation about Leonardo, his vision of the world is essentially logical rather than mysterious, and that the empirical methods he employed were unusual for his time.





Study of horse from Leonardo's journals



The Vitruvian Man (c. 1485)

 Accademia, Venice



Leonardo was and is renowned primarily as a Painter.


 Among his works, the Mona Lisa is the most famous and most parodied portrait and The Last Supper the most reproduced religious painting of all time, with their fame approached only by Michelangelo's Creation of Adam.


 Leonardo's drawing of the Vitruvian Man is also regarded as a cultural icon being reproduced on items as varied as the euro, textbooks, and T-shirts.


 Perhaps fifteen of his paintings survive, the small number due to his constant, and frequently disastrous, experimentation with new techniques, and his chronic procrastination. Nevertheless, these few works, together with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the nature of painting, compose a contribution to later generations of artists only rivaled by that of his contemporary, Michelangelo.






Leonardo is revered for his Technological Ingenuity.


He conceptualized a Helicopter, a Tank, Concentrated Solar Power, a Calculator, the double hull and outlined a rudimentary Theory of Plate Tectonics.


 Relatively few of his designs were constructed or were even feasible during his lifetime, but some of his smaller inventions, such as an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire, entered the world of manufacturing unheralded. He made important discoveries in anatomy, civil engineering, optics, and hydrodynamics, but he did not publish his findings and they had no direct influence on later science.






Did Leonardo Actually Invented the Telescope?


Did Leonardo da Vinci, namesake of the Da Vinci Science Center, essentially invent the astronomical telescope 100 years before Galileo? A former Keynote Presenter from the Center’s annual Leonardo’s Imaginings celebration believes it is possible.

Bulent Atalay, Ph.D. – a best-selling author, world-renowned expert on Leonardo da Vinci – published an essay July 5 on the National Geographic Society website outlining his hypothesis and supporting research by partner scholars. While not making a conclusive statement, the scholars’ analysis of Leonardo’s 16th century drawings and writings suggests that the Renaissance master had developed many of the telescope’s fundamental principles.







National Geographic Live!: Leonardo's Universe  ( 48 mins)


Bulent Atalay, himself a scientist and artist, offers a comprehensive look at Leonardo Da Vinci, his work, and the many ways in which this enigmatic genius has influenced our world.








Leonardo da Vinci: The Universal Genius (2011)


The man from the Tuscan village of Vinci is regarded as the universal genius of the Renaissance, although he only completed a few works. He was an architect and engineer, yet there is not a single building based on his plans, he was a sculptor, yet virtually none of his sculptures are extant. And only a few portraits and frescoes testify to the brilliance of the painter Leonardo. Nevertheless, the outstanding quality of his works, the diversity of his ideas, observations and fantasies still endow the artist and scientist with the title of Universal Genius .
This informative and entertaining film follows Leonardo's trail from Florence, where he becomes a pupil of Verrocchio, via Milan, where he spends the longest time of his life, to Amboise Castle in the Loire, following the invitation of the French King Francis I. In his luggage the old painter took with him the Mona Lisa the picture that was to make him world-famous.

This program also features close ups of many of Leonardo s masterpieces filmed on location.


Leonardo Da Vinci - Universal Genius ( 9:29 mins)







Leonardo Da Vinci - Books


Leonardo's Legacy: How Da Vinci Reimagined the World


Revered today as perhaps the greatest of Renaissance painters, Leonardo da Vinci was a scientist at heart. The artist who created the Mona Lisa also designed functioning robots and digital computers, constructed flying machines, and built the first heart valve. In Leonardo’s Legacy, award-winning science journalist Stefan Klein deciphers the forgotten contributions of this universal genius and persuasively demonstrates that we still have much to learn from his way of thinking.


 “Math and the Mona Lisa: The Art and Science of Leonardo da Vinci,” book by


Bulent Atalay, Ph.D. – a best-selling author, world-renowned expert on Leonardo da Vinci





Nicolaus Copernicus









Nicolaus Copernicus - (1473-1543)


Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was one of the great polymaths of his age. He was a mathematician, astronomer, jurist, physician, classical scholar, governor, administrator, diplomat, economist, and soldier. Amid his extensive accomplishments, he treated astronomy as an avocation. However, it is for his work in astronomy and cosmology that he has been remembered and accorded a place as one of the most important scientific figures in human history. He provided the first modern formulation of a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in his epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres).


That change, often known as the Copernican Revolution, had important and far-reaching implications for not only science and cosmology but also theology, philosophy, and culture, and for the relationship between religion and science. Copernicus' concept marked a scientific revolution. It has been equated it with the initiation of "the scientific revolution."

.-The Heliocentric System



The Earth-centered Universe of Aristotle and Ptolemy held sway on Western thinking for almost 2000 years. Then, in the 16th century a new idea was proposed by the Polish astronomer Nicolai Copernicus

In a book called On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies (that was published as Copernicus lay on his deathbed), Copernicus proposed that the Sun, not the Earth, was the center of the Solar System. Such a model is called a heliocentric system. The ordering of the planets known to Copernicus in this new system is illustrated in the following figure, which we recognize as the modern ordering of those planets. ….

World History Honors Period E Nicolaus Copernicus ( 3 mins) 





Galileo Galilei





Galileo Galilei - the Father of Modern Science

When Galileo ( 1564 – 1642) was 15 he told his father that he wanted to be a monk, however this is not what Galileo’s father wanted for him so Galileo was withdrawn from the monastery. He went to the University of Pisa where he started to study medicine. Galileo preferred mathematics but to satisfy his father’s wishes he studied medicine. Galileo’s father had a huge influence on what he did with his life. What if his father did not care so much about him? Would Galileo be a monk or a doctor? He would have never influenced the world with his discoveries and inventions.

Applications of Inventions - “He paved the way for many new discoveries…His ability to use and refine common experience, his habit of rigorous, logical thinking, the consistent use of stringent ‘thought’ experiments, are now essential parts of the training and practice of scientists…No one before him so clearly realized that instruments serve two essential purposes: First, they make observations both objective and quantitative, transforming them into ‘measures’. Second, they extend the power of human senses beyond their normal physiological limits.”

Galileo Galilei Pioneers Who Changed The Way We Think ( 7:23 mins)

Galileo Galilei was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy," the "father of modern physics," the "father of science and "the Father of Modern Science."Stephen Hawking says, "Galileo, perhaps more than any other single person, was responsible for the birth modern science.






Galileo’s Quotes:


“All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them.”  ― Galileo Galilei


“Passion is the genesis of genius.” ― Galileo Galilei


“I have never met a man so ignorant that I couldn't learn something from him.” ― Galileo Galilei









Telescope - Galileo invented the first telescope powerful enough to make astronomical discoveries like the moons of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, Neptune, and sunspots. It is often mistaken that Galileo made the first telescope, however that is incorrect. 

Galileo made a telescope that actually made discoveries. It changed the world and allowed us to really start exploring the universe. If Galileo never made this telescope would we still know about the phases or moons of our planets? Galileo did the hardest part; he made it possible for others to discover and make more powerful telescopes.






Galileo's Pendulum

The Pendulum Clock was illustrated by Galileo in a letter to the Dutch Laurens Reael in june 1637. The control of the clock rate depended on the isochronism of the oscillation of pendulum of equal length that Galileo had demonstrated in his researches of Mechanics.

In 1583, observing a lamp swinging in the dome of Pisa, the scientist found that its period did not change (he measured it with the heartbeat of his wrist) and noticed that the pendulum's period of swinging appeared to be independent from the “swing arc” (isochronism of pendulum). He also tried to find out the relations between the length and the weight of pendulum and its period.

Many years later, in 1641 when he was under house arrest at his villa in Arcetri, Galileo realised that the pendulum had potential for timekeeping and suggested of using a swinging weight to control the speed of a clock; he sketched a plan that did not carry out because he died before his work could be completed.





Johannes Kepler




Kepler's Platonic solid model of the Solar system & remembered for his

 "Three Laws of Planetary Motion".


The Great Comet of 1577, which Kepler witnessed as a child, attracted the attention of astronomers across Europe.


Orbital mechanic





Johannes Kepler


Johannes Kepler (German December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his eponymous Laws of Planetary Motion, codified by later astronomers, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.

During his career, Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, Austria, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Later he became an assistant to astronomer Tycho Brahe, and eventually the imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. He was also a mathematics teacher in Linz, Austria, and an adviser to General Wallenstein. Additionally, he did fundamental work in the field of optics, invented an improved version of the refracting telescope (the Keplerian Telescope), and mentioned the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei.

Kepler lived in an era when there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology, but there was a strong division between astronomy (a branch of mathematics within the liberal arts) and physics (a branch of natural philosophy). Kepler also incorporated religious arguments and reasoning into his work, motivated by the religious conviction and belief that God had created the world according to an intelligible plan that is accessible through the natural light of reason.[1] Kepler described his new astronomy as "celestial physics",[2] as "an excursion into Aristotle's Metaphysics",[3] and as "a supplement to Aristotle's On the Heavens", transforming the ancient tradition of physical cosmology by treating astronomy as part of a universal mathematical physics.



Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion


In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing orbital motion, originally formulated to describe the motion of planets around the Sun.

Kepler's laws are:

1.The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci.
2.A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
3.The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.

Prague Technical Museum introduces "Johannes Kepler in Prague"


The Museum chose to feature five great Modern Age scientists - Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, and Newton - and found five institutions that would be able to host exhibitions focusing on each one of these men.


From 1600-1612, to be precise. Johannes Kepler is chiefly remembered for discovering the three laws of planetary motion that bear his name.


It was so scientifically advanced that it wasn't until 1644 that it was published by Kepler's son Ludwig. It is a very interesting book that describes Kepler's journey to the moon. Written in Latin, he tells us what travellers would have to face on their trips to the moon - radiation, gravity - and the problems involved in the actual transfer. So, with this publication, Kepler was at least 350 years ahead of us, even though the first real trip to the moon was not until the second half of the twentieth century."


An Astronomer's Astronomer: Kepler's Revolutionary Achievements in 1609 Rival Galileo's


It was one of those intellectual leaps that would change the course of science. Kepler found that not only did an elliptical orbit with the sun at one focus explain the movement of Mars, but also of the other planets. ... But the underlying physical reason for the planetary motion eluded Kepler, who thought a sort of magnetism was responsible. That puzzle would have to wait for another revolutionary thinker, Isaac Newton, whose law of gravity appeared on the scientific stage and explained orbital behavior eight decades later.





Isaac Newton





Optics - From 1670 to 1672, Newton lectured on optics.During this period he investigated the refraction of light, demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a Sectrum of colours




Celestial Mechanics and Gravitation




Isaac Newton


Sir Isaac Newton  (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727) was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for most of classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics and, as mathematician, he shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of the infinitesimal calculus.

Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. It also demonstrated that the motion of objects on the Earth and that of celestial bodies could be described by the same principles. By deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravity, Newton removed the last doubts about the validity of the heliocentric model of the cosmos.

Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. In addition to his work on the calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalized the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, and developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function.


Gravity - The Big Idea...

Newton's 1687 Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica laid out much of today's classical mechanics, but arguably its most important theory was that of universal gravitation. Newton's law states that any particle of matter in the universe attracts any other with a force varying directly as the product of the masses and inversely as the square of the distance between them. This notion drew together the logically independent laws of motion set out by Johannes Kepler decades before, which since his death had been accepted but not related to causality, and led to an accurate – even by modern standards – description of how planets, moons and comets move through space. Newton's law has since been succeeded by Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity, which allows systems to be described with far greater accuracy – especially when they are very large.


The Nature and Properties of Light & Opticks


He proceeded to conduct much work into the Nature and Properties of Light over the next 30 years, which would culminate in the publication of his 1704 text Opticks. Prior to that, in 1687, Newton published his groundbreaking book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (ie Mathematical Principles Of Natural Philosophy) – which outlined his laws of motion, universal gravitation and a derivation of Johannes Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Even though Newton's genius had been noted prior to the publication of this seminal text, its success established him within the wider scientific society. Indeed, as a result of this work, he would not only be welcomed into the Royal Society, but also knighted by Queen Anne – only the second scientist to have been awarded the title at this time.


How did Isaac Newton really discover Gravity - Apple or Comet? BBC science

  ( 2  mins)


Discover here how the science of a comet and its appearance in 1680 and 1681 was what really made Isaac Newton discover gravity. Interesting video clip from BBC.


Gravity: the weakest natural force on Earth? - Parallel Universe - BBC Science

( 4 mins)


Scientists from Harvard university try out a revolutionary theory to explain the weakness of gravity in comparison to all other forces of nature. Great video from BBC science show 'Parallel Universes'.






1450 – Johann Gutenberg invents a printing press using movable metal type






Back to Top of Page


Visionaries - Inventions & Discoveries

- The Pre-Modern & The Modern





Benjamin Franklin







Benjamin Franklin


Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706– April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, musician, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. He invented the lightning rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and the glass 'armonica'.[1] He facilitated many civic organizations, including a fire department and a university.


Franklin was a prodigious inventor. Among his many creations were the lightning rod, glass harmonica (a glass instrument, not to be confused with the metal harmonica), Franklin stove, bifocal glasses and the flexible urinary catheter. Franklin never patented his inventions; in his autobiography he wrote, "... as we enjoy great advantages from the inventions of others, we should be glad of an opportunity to serve others by any invention of ours; and this we should do freely and generously."

His inventions also included social innovations, such as paying forward. Franklin's fascination with innovation could be viewed as altruistic; he wrote that his scientific works were to be used for increasing efficiency and human improvement. One such improvement was his effort to expedite news services through his printing presses.


 - Franklin had a major influence on the emerging science of demography, or population studies.



His discoveries resulted from his investigations of electricity. Franklin proposed that "vitreous" and "resinous" electricity were not different types of "electrical fluid" (as electricity was called then), but the same electrical fluid under different pressures. He was the first to label them as positive and negative respectively,[40] and he was the first to discover the principle of conservation of charge.

In 1750 he published a proposal for an experiment to prove that lightning is electricity by flying a kite in a storm that appeared capable of becoming a lightning storm. On May 10, 1752 Thomas-François Dalibard of France conducted Franklin's experiment using a 40-foot (12 m)-tall iron rod instead of a kite, and he extracted electrical sparks from a cloud. On June 15 Franklin may possibly have conducted his famous kite experiment in Philadelphia, successfully extracting sparks from a cloud. Franklin's experiment was not written up with credit[42] until Joseph Priestley's 1767 History and Present Status of Electricity; the evidence shows that Franklin was insulated (not in a conducting path, where he would have been in danger of electrocution). Others, such as Prof. Georg Wilhelm Richmann were indeed electrocuted during the months following Franklin's experiment.


 - Franklin's electrical experiments led to his invention of the Lightning Rod.


Wave theory of light

Franklin was, along with his contemporary Leonhard Euler, the only major scientist who supported Christiaan Huygens' wave theory of light, which was basically ignored by the rest of the scientific community. In the 18th century Newton's corpuscular theory was held to be true; only after Young's famous slit experiment (1803) were most scientists persuaded to believe Huygens' theory.

Other Interests & Discoveries:


Meteorology - Concept of cooling - Oceanography findings -  Science of Geo-engineering - Population studies


Top 10 Ben Franklin Inventions





George Stephenson






George Stephenson build the world's first public railways: the Stockton and Darlington railway in 1825



George Stephenson - Inventor of Steam Locomotive Engine for Railways


George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use steam locomotives, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830. Renowned as the "Father of Railways", the Victorians considered him a great example of diligent application and thirst for improvement, with self-help advocate Samuel Smiles particularly praising his achievements. His rail gauge of 4 feet 81⁄2 inches (1,435 mm), sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the world's standard gauge.


George Stephenson was born on on June 9, 1781 in the Wylam, England as a son of poor and hardworking miner. From his young days he experienced life in the mining village, surrounded by simple wagonways, miners and farmers. He watched for years how horses pulled cart after cart of coal and iron along simple railways that were built in his area, and always imagined new ways to improve this. After the patent of James Watt’s steam engine lapsed, inventors jumped to the opportunity to see if they can adapt it to various industrial and public uses.


First Rail Road Steam Engine -Scale Model


First Public Railways


George Stephenson build the world's first public railways: the Stockton and Darlington railway in 1825 and the Liverpool-Manchester railway in 1830. Stephenson was the chief engineer for several of the railways.


In 1760′s James Watts has built the first efficient steam engine. His early machines were used to help pump water out of coal mines


George Stephenson - First Locomotive

In 1813, George Stephenson became aware that William Hedley and Timothy Hackworth were designing a locomotive for the Wylam coal mine. So at the age of twenty, George Stephenson began the construction of his first locomotive. It should be noted that at this time in history, every part of the engine had to be made by hand, and hammered into shape just like a horseshoe. John Thorswall, a coal mine blacksmith, was George Stephenson's main assistant.





Louis Daguerre



Daguerreotype taken by Louis Daguerre
Boulevard du Temple, Paris - 1839


World's Oldest Photo Camera


Peter Coeln, the CEO of WestLicht Photographica Auction Vienna, with the Giroux Daguerreotype up for auction




Louis Daguerre &  the Daguerreotype


Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (18 November 1787 – 10 July 1851) was a French artist and physicist, recognized for his invention of the daguerreotype process of photography. He became known as one of the fathers of photography. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre.


Daguerre was born in Cormeilles-en-Parisis, Val-d'Oise, France. He apprenticed in architecture, theatre design, and panoramic painting with Pierre Prévost, the first French panorama painter. Exceedingly adept at his skill of theatrical illusion, he became a celebrated designer for the theatre and later came to invent the Diorama, which opened in Paris in July 1822.

In 1829, Daguerre partnered with Nicéphore Niépce, an inventor who had produced the world's first heliograph in 1822 and the first permanent camera photograph four years later. Niépce died suddenly in 1833, but Daguerre continued experimenting and evolved the process which would subsequently be known as the Daguerreotype.

After the death of Niépce in 1833, Daguerre concentrated his attention on the light-sensitive properties of silver salts, which had previously been demonstrated by Johann Heinrich Schultz and others. For the process which was eventually named the Daguerreotype, he exposed a thin silver-plated copper sheet to the vapor given off by iodine crystals, producing a coating of light-sensitive silver iodide on the surface. The plate was then exposed in the camera. Initially, this process, too, required a very long exposure to produce a distinct image, but Daguerre made the crucial discovery that an invisibly faint "latent" image created by a much shorter exposure could be chemically "developed" into a visible image....


World's Oldest Photographs ( 6  mins)






Charles  Darwin








Charles Robert Darwin, FRS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist.[I] He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors,[1] and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.[2]

Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species.[3][4] By the 1870s the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations and it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution.[5][6] In modified form, Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life


The Voyage of the "Beagle"


Charles Darwin Biography ( 52 mins)


Charles Robert Darwin  (12 February 1809 -- 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.

Darwin published his theory with compelling evidence for evolution in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations and it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. In modified form, Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life.

Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh; instead, he helped to investigate marine invertebrates. Studies at the University of Cambridge encouraged his passion for natural science. His five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.

Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations and in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority. He was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay which described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories. Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil.





 James Clerk Maxwell




The Man Who Changed Everything:

 The Life of James Clerk Maxwell



 James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), a Scottish physicist and mathematician, puts the Theory of Electromagnetism on Mathematical Basis


James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish theoretical physicist. His most prominent achievement was formulating classical electromagnetic theory. This unites all previously unrelated observations, experiments, and equations of electricity, magnetism, and optics into a consistent theory. Maxwell's equations demonstrate that electricity, magnetism and light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon, namely the electromagnetic field. Subsequently, all other classical laws or equations of these disciplines became simplified cases of Maxwell's equations. Maxwell's achievements concerning electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics", after the first one realised by Isaac Newton.

Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space in the form of waves and at the constant speed of light. In 1865, Maxwell published A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field. It was with this that he first proposed that light was in fact undulations in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena.[5] His work in producing a unified model of electromagnetism is one of the greatest advances in physics.

Maxwell also helped develop the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, which is a statistical means of describing aspects of the kinetic theory of gases. These two discoveries helped usher in the era of modern physics, laying the foundation for such fields as special relativity and quantum mechanics.

Maxwell is also known for presenting the first durable colour photograph in 1861 and for his foundational work on the rigidity of rod-and-joint frameworks (trusses) like those in many bridges.

Many physicists consider Maxwell to be the 19th-century scientist having the greatest influence on 20th-century physics. His contributions to the science are considered by many to be of the same magnitude as those of Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. In the millennium poll—a survey of the 100 most prominent physicists—Maxwell was voted the third greatest physicist of all time, behind only Newton and Einstein. On the centennial of Maxwell's birthday, Einstein himself described Maxwell's work as the "most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton." Einstein kept a photograph of Maxwell on his study wall, alongside pictures of Michael Faraday and Newton.







The 19th-century physicist James Clerk Maxwell is best known for unifying observations about electricity, magnetism and light into the classical Theory of Electromagnetism.



Electromagnetism - (1860)


Maxwell had studied and commented on the field of electricity and magnetism as early as 1855/6 when "On Faraday's lines of force" was read to the Cambridge Philosophical Society. The paper presented a simplified model of Faraday's work, and how the two phenomena were related. He reduced all of the current knowledge into a linked set of differential equations with 20 equations in 20 variables. This work was later published as "On physical lines of force" in March 1861.

Around 1862, while lecturing at King's College, Maxwell calculated that the speed of propagation of an electromagnetic field is approximately that of the speed of light. He considered this to be more than just a coincidence, and commented "We can scarcely avoid the conclusion that light consists in the transverse undulations of the same medium which is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena."

Working on the problem further, Maxwell showed that the equations predict the existence of waves of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that travel through empty space at a speed that could be predicted from simple electrical experiments; using the data available at the time, Maxwell obtained a velocity of 310,740,000 m/s. In his 1864 paper, "A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field", Maxwell wrote, "The agreement of the results seems to show that light and magnetism are affections of the same substance, and that light is an electromagnetic disturbance propagated through the field according to electromagnetic laws".

His famous equations, in their modern form of four partial differential equations, first appeared in fully developed form in his textbook, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism in 1873. Most of this work was done by Maxwell at Glenlair during the period between holding his London post and his taking up the Cavendish chair. Maxwell expressed electromagnetism in the algebra of quaternions and made the electromagnetic potential the centerpiece of his theory. In 1881, Oliver Heaviside replaced Maxwell’s electromagnetic potential field by ‘force fields’ as the centerpiece of electromagnetic theory. Heaviside reduced the complexity of Maxwell’s theory down to four differential equations, known now collectively as Maxwell's Laws or Maxwell's equations. According to Heaviside, the electromagnetic potential field was arbitrary and needed to be "murdered".The use of scalar and vector potentials is now standard in the solution of Maxwell's equations.


      Samuel Morse



Telegraph Key - 24 May 1844



Samuel Morse Telegraph Receiver



Telegraph – Samuel Morse ( 1791-1872)


1837 – Samuel Morse ( 1791-1872)  invents a telegraph that can send short and long beeps, called “dots” and “dashes”.


Telegraphy (from Greek: tele τῆλε "at a distance", and graphein γράφειν "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy whereas pigeon post is not.

Telegraphy requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Such methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used. The use of smoke signals, beacons, reflected light signals, and flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity brought about the means to transmit signals via electrical telegraph. The advent of radio in the early 1900s brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy. In the Internet age, telegraphic means developed greatly in sophistication and ease of use, with natural language interfaces that hide the underlying code, allowing such technologies as electronic mail and instant messaging.


The History of the Electric Telegraph and Telegraphy

The Beginning of Electronic Communications 






Karl Benz



1885 Benz Patent Motorwagen


Carl Benz and his double-pivot steering




Karl Benz - First Gas-Powered Car 1886


Karl Friedrich Benz  (November 25, 1844 – April 4, 1929) was a German engine designer and car engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the gasoline-powered automobile, and together with Bertha Benz pioneering founder of the automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benz. Other German contemporaries, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach working as partners, also worked on similar types of inventions, without knowledge of the work of the other, but Benz patented his work first, and, subsequently patented all the processes that made the internal combustion engine feasible for use in an automobile. In 1879 his first engine patent was granted to him and in 1886 Benz was granted a patent for his first automobile.


When most people think of the automobile, they think of Henry Ford and his assembly lines. In fact, it was a German contemporary, Karl Benz, who was awarded the first patent for an automobile fueled by gas in 1886.

Benz's "motorwagon", first designed in 1885, went on sale to the general public a few years later. He built 25 models in the first 5 years, and his wife is credited with making the first road trip.



In 1885, German mechanical engineer, Karl Benz designed and built the world's first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine. On January 29, 1886, Benz received the first patent (DRP No. 37435) for a gas-fueled car. It was a three-wheeler; Benz built his first four-wheeled car in 1891. Benz & Company, the company started by the inventor, became the world's largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1900.


Benz began his work on a two-stroke engine, in hopes of finding a new income. He received his first patent in 1879. In 1883, he founded Benz & Company to produce industrial engines in Mannheim, Germany. He then began designing a "motor carriage", with a four-stroke engine (based on Nicolaus Otto's patent). Benz designed his engine (958cc, 0.75hp) and the body for the three-wheel vehicle with an electric ignition, differential gears, and water-cooling. The car was first driven in Mannheim in 1885. On January 29, 1886, he was granted a patent for his gas-fueled automobile (DRP 37435) and in July, he began selling his automobile to the public.


In 1886, quite independently of each other, two inventions hit the road: in Mannheim the Benz Patent Motor Car – a vehicle designed from scratch – and in Stuttgart Daimler’s Motorized Carriage – as its name implies, a carriage powered by an engine. Both vehicles were lacking a decisive feature, however: a steering system matched to the vehicle and capable of coping with the prevailing conditions and speeds. These two great pioneers not only enabled mobility to people, but also set the standard for vehicles and their parts.


1886 125 Years of Mercedes





Alexander Graham Bell





First Long Distance Call from New York to Chicago in 1892.




Alexander Graham Bell - Telephone Invention


Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.

Bell's father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech, and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work. His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first US patent for the telephone in 1876. In retrospect, Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.

Many other inventions marked Bell's later life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications, hydrofoils and aeronautics. In 1888, Bell became one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society.He has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history




18?? – First successful transmissions over a Transatlantic Cable


A transatlantic telephone cable is a submarine communications cable that carries telephone traffic under the Atlantic Ocean.

When the first transatlantic telegraph cable was laid in 1858 by businessman Cyrus West Field, it operated for only a month; subsequent attempts in 1865 and 1866 were more successful. Although a telephone cable was discussed starting in the 1920s, to be practical it needed a number of technological advances which did not arrive until the 1940s. Starting in 1927, transatlantic telephone service was radio-based.









Thomas Alva Edison





Thomas Alva Edison - Genius of Menlo Park

Edison Biography - The Life of Thomas Edison (1847-1931)

• Biography

Born on February 11, 1847 in Milan, Ohio; the seventh and last child of Samuel and Nancy Edison. When he was seven his family moved to Port Huron, Michigan and Edison lived there until he struck out on his own at the age of sixteen. He had very little formal education as a child, attending school only for a few months. He was taught reading, writing, and arithmetic by his mother, but was always a very curious child and taught himself much by reading on his own. This belief in self-improvement remained throughout his life.

The Genius of Menlo Park - Biography

He was a poor student. When a schoolmaster called him "addled," his furious mother took him out of the school and proceeded to teach him at home. Thomas Edison said many years later, "My mother was the making of me. She was so true, so sure of me, and I felt I had some one to live for, some one I must not disappoint." At an early age, he showed a fascination for mechanical things and for chemical experiments.

He Registered 1,093 Patents !!!

The Edison Museum is in Ft. Meyers, Fl.


Edison & Ford  Museum - Ft. Meyers, FL.


Thomas Edison & Henry Ford Estates & Museums - Fort Myers Florida ( 6 mins)


The Thomas Edison & Henry Ford Estates located in Ft. Myers Florida.
The property was purchased in 1885.

Story of Thomas Alva Edison ( 30 mins) 






Edison - Quotes


- "Genius is one per cent inspiration and ninety-nine per cent perspiration.”


- “If we all did the things we are really capable of doing, we would literally astound ourselves....”


- “Someday, man will harness the rise and fall of the tides, imprison the power of the sun, and release atomic power.” (Said Earlier than 1939!)






Some of the Inventions of Thomas Alva Edison:





Phonograph - History

The first great invention developed by Edison in Menlo Park was the tin foil phonograph. While working to improve the efficiency of a telegraph transmitter, he noted that the tape of the machine gave off a noise resembling spoken words when played at a high speed. This caused him to wonder if he could record a telephone message. He began experimenting with the diaphragm of a telephone receiver by attaching a needle to it. He reasoned that the needle could prick paper tape to record a message. His experiments led him to try a stylus on a tinfoil cylinder, which, to his great surprise, played back the short message he recorded, "Mary had a little lamb."

The word phonograph was the trade name for Edison's device, which played cylinders rather than discs. The machine had two needles: one for recording and one for playback. When you spoke into the mouthpiece, the sound vibrations of your voice would be indented onto the cylinder by the recording needle. This cylinder phonograph was the first machine that could record and reproduce sound created a sensation and brought Edison international fame.





Electricity and Light bulb - History

Thomas Edison's greatest challenge was the development of a practical incandescent, electric light. Contrary to popular belief, he didn't "invent" the lightbulb, but rather he improved upon a 50-year-old idea. In 1879, using lower current electricity, a small carbonized filament, and an improved vacuum inside the globe, he was able to produce a reliable, long-lasting source of light. The idea of electric lighting was not new, and a number of people had worked on, and even developed forms of electric lighting. But up to that time, nothing had been developed that was remotely practical for home use. Edison's eventual achievement was inventing not just an incandescent electric light, but also an electric lighting system that contained all the elements necessary to make the incandescent light practical, safe, and economical. After one and a half years of work, success was achieved when an incandescent lamp with a filament of carbonized sewing thread burned for thirteen and a half hours.

There are a couple of other interesting things about the invention of the light bulb: While most of the attention was on the discovery of the right kind of filament that would work, Edison actually had to invent a total of seven system elements that were critical to the practical application of electric lights as an alternative to the gas lights that were prevalent in that day.




The Kinetoscope


Crystal Palace, London, England,

29th June 1888


Leeds Bridge, London, England, Filmed on 29th June 1888


The Lumiere Brothers' First Films



Old London Street Scenes (1903)



Edison Motion Pictures - History

Thomas Edison's interest in motion pictures began before 1888, however, the visit of Eadweard Muybridge to his laboratory in West Orange in February of that year certainly stimulated his resolve to invent a camera for motion pictures. Muybridge proposed that they collaborate and combine the Zoopraxiscope with the Edison phonograph. Although apparently intrigued, Edison decided not to participate in such a partnership, perhaps realizing that the Zoopraxiscope was not a very practical or efficient way of recording motion. In an attempt to protect his future, he filed a caveat with the Patents Office on October 17, 1888, describing his ideas for a device which would "do for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear" -- record and reproduce objects in motion. He called it a "Kinetoscope," using the Greek words "kineto" meaning "movement" and "scopos" meaning "to watch."

One of Edison's first motion picture and the first motion picture ever copyrighted showed his employee Fred Ott pretending to sneeze. One problem was that a good film for motion pictures was not available. In 1893, Eastman Kodak began supplying motion picture film stock, making it possible for Edison to step up the production of new motion pictures. He built a motion picture production studio in New Jersey. The studio had a roof that could be opened to let in daylight, and the entire building was constructed so that it could be moved to stay in line with the sun.

Kinetoscope comes from the Greek words "kineto" meaning "movement" and "scopos" meaning "to watch."


National Museum of Photography, Film and Television - U.K.




Earliest Surviving Film and Sound Recording 1888 ( 2:35 mins)


1888, the year of the death of the composer Charles-Valentin Alkan (Chopin's friend and neighbour) is also the year of the earliest surviving recording of music and earliest recorded film. Combined on this video is the earliest surviving recording of music (a live performance of Handel's oratorio Israel in Egypt conducted by Sir August Manns, recorded by Edison engineer George E. Gouraud at Crystal Palace, London, England, 29th June 1888) and the earliest surviving recorded film (shot by Louis Aimé Augustin Le Prince in Leeds, England in October 1888): Roundhay Garden Scene (filmed 14 October 1888) and Traffic Crossing Leeds Bridge (filmed late October 1888). In the Roundhay Garden Scene (filmed in the garden of the Whitley family home in Oakwood Grange Road, Roundhay, Leeds, England) are the following people (from the left at beginning of sequence): Adolphe Le Prince (the film maker's son), Miss Harriet Hartley, Mrs. Sarah Whitley, (the film maker's mother-in-law), and Joseph Whitley (the film maker's business partner). The original film was shot at 12 frames per second and lasts 2 seconds. Traffic Crossing Leeds Bridge was filmed in Leeds, England in late October 1888, at 20 frames per second.


The Lumière Brothers' First Films - Documentary (1996)  ( 6: 36 mins)


Filmed between 1895 and 1897, these short films represent, in the words of Bertrand Tavernier (the video's narrator), the point where "the history of invention stopped ... and the history of filmmaking began." Tavernier guides us through a selection of 85 full-length "actualities" (50 seconds each) filmed by the Lumières and their associates, selected from over 1,500 "actualities" in the Institute Lumière's archives. Chosen, organized, and edited by Thierry Fremaux (Director of the Institute Lumière), these films present a fascinating portrait of the genesis of film.


Old London Street Scenes (1903) ( 4 mins)


Made over 100 years ago, this footage shows a number of scenes shot around central London, taking in locations such as Hyde Park Corner, Parliament Square and Charing Cross Station. We see crowds of people disembarking from a pleasure steamer at Victoria Embankment, pedestrians dodging horse-drawn carriages in Pall Mall, and heavy traffic trotting down the Strand.

There are plenty of famous landmarks to spot here, including Big Ben, the National Gallery and the Bank of England, and it is fascinating to see the similarities between the customs of "then" and "now" - the dense traffic (mainly horse-drawn, with the occasional motor car) is highly reminiscent of today's London rush hour, whilst advertising on public transport is clearly no new phenomenon - in one scene, an advert for Nestlé's Milk seems to be plastered on every other vehicle. 









Military/Geometric Compass

Military/Geometric Compass - Galileo made a calculating device that preformed many geometrical and arithmetical operations. This device was needed in the military field because the technology of firearms called for precise mathematical knowledge. “It was possible to perform with the greatest of ease all sorts of arithmetical and geometric calculations, ranging from calculating interest to extracting square and cube roots, from drawing polygons to calculating areas and volumes, from measuring gauges to surveying a territory.” What if Galileo never made this compass? Would the military have weak

firearms? This compass not only changed the mathematical world, but it changed the
military field as well.





Inventions that Failed

Not everything Thomas Edison created was a success - he also had a few failures.

Thomas Alva Edison held 1,093 patents for different inventions. Many of them, like the light bulb, the phonograph, and the motion picture camera, were brilliant creations that have a huge influence on our everyday life. However, not everything he created was a success; he also had a few failures.

One concept that never took off was Edison's interest in using cement to build things. He formed the Edison Portland Cement Co. in 1899, and made everything from cabinets (for phonographs) to pianos and houses. Unfortunately, at the time, concrete was too expensive and the idea was never accepted. Cement wasn't a total failure, though.


Thomas Edison's 31 Greatest Inventions





Henry Ford








Henry Ford


Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. Although Ford did not invent the automobile, he developed and manufactured the first automobile that many middle class Americans could afford to buy.


 His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry. As owner of the Ford Motor Company, he became one of the richest and best-known people in the world. He is credited with "Fordism": mass production of inexpensive goods coupled with high wages for workers. Ford had a global vision, with consumerism as the key to peace. His intense commitment to systematically lowering costs resulted in many technical and business innovations, including a franchise system that put dealerships throughout most of North America and in major cities on six continents. Ford left most of his vast wealth to the Ford Foundation but arranged for his family to control the company permanently.



The assembly line developed for the Ford Model T began operation on December 1, 1913. It had immense influence on the world. Despite oversimplistic attempts to attribute it to one man or another, it was in fact a composite development based on logic that took 7 years and plenty of intelligent men


Henry Ford -  Model T  - Documentary   ( 46 mins  )


Peter Graves is the host of the show,



PBS American Experience Henry Ford  - Full Documentary  ( 1 Hr : 54 mins)


The Wisdom of Henry Ford  ( 8 mins )


Henry Ford  Museum - Dearborn, MI


Edison & Ford  Museum - Ft. Meyers, FL.


Thomas Edison & Henry Ford Estates & Museums - Fort Myers Florida ( 6 mins)


The Thomas Edison & Henry Ford Estates located in Ft. Myers Florida.
The property was purchased in 1885. 





Max Planck




Planck in 1918, the year he received the

Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on "Quantum Theory".





Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck,

(April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German physicist who is regarded as the founder of the Quantum Theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.


Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame rests primarily on his role as originator of the quantum theory. This theory revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes, just as Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity revolutionized the understanding of space and time. Together they constitute the fundamental theories of 20th-century physics. Both have led humanity to revise some of its most cherished philosophical beliefs, and have brought about industrial and military applications that affect many aspects of modern life. 












~ "A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it."

- Max Planck ~


~ "Science cannot solve the ultimate mystery of nature. And that is because, in the last analysis, we ourselves are a part of the mystery that we are trying to solve.". - Max Planck ~


~“All matter originates and exists only by virtue of a force which brings the particles of an atom to vibration and holds this minute solar system of the atom together....We must assume behind this force the existence of a conscious and intelligent mind. The mind is the matrix of all matter.”
― Max Planck  ~


“There is no matter as such—mind is the matrix of all matter.”
― Max Planck


"I regard consciousness as fundamental. I regard matter as derivative from consciousness. We cannot get behind consciousness. Everything that we talk about, everything that we regard as existing, postulates consciousness."

 - Max Planck


















Albert Einstein






Albert Einstein 


Albert Einstein  14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).[2][3] While best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation"),[4] he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory.

Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole.

He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, and did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the U.S., becoming a citizen in 1940. On the eve of World War II, he helped alert President Franklin D. Roosevelt that Germany might be developing an atomic weapon, and recommended that the U.S. begin similar research; this eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project. Einstein was in support of defending the Allied forces, but largely denounced using the new discovery of nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, with the British philosopher Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. Einstein was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955.

Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works.[ His great intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with genius. 







Collected Quotes from Albert Einstein






The Extraordinary Genius of Albert Einstein ( 1Hr:43 mins)

The core of the video is a workshop pedagogical on the Theory of Special Relativity as part of the educational process conducted by our youth leadership, not for the sake of understanding the theory itself, but using Einstein's particular discovery as a case study to demonstrate and walk people through real human thinking, as being something above sense perceptions or opinions. We end with reflecting on the principle of relativity in terms of social relations and individual identities or thought processes, asking the question --how was Einstein able to make his breakthrough?







Spacetime (Space-time), Relativity, Quantum Gravity, and Quantum Physics

Summaries of Spacetime, Relativity, and Quantum Theories for beginning and advanced visitors, with Links to the Best Websites on Space,Time, Einstein's Relativity, Quantum Gravity, Quantum Physics, Dark Matter and Energy, plus a discussion of the possibility that we live in an essentially atemporal universe.










Nikola Tesla


He had acquire 700 patents to his name


Tesla with one of his famous "wireless" lamps. Published on the cover of the Electrical Experimenter in 1919.



Design the First Hydro-Eelectric A/C Power Plant at Niagara fall in 1895



Tesla in Colorado Springs Lab


Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by power obtainable at any point in the Universe.
It is a mere question of time when men
will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature.”
---Nikola Tesla




Nikola Tesla - Scientist and Inventor – (1856 - 1943 )

Nikola Tesla (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian American[2][3][4] inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.[5]

Tesla gained experience in telephony and electrical engineering before emigrating to the United States in 1884 to work for Thomas Edison. He soon struck out on his own with financial backers, setting up laboratories and companies to develop a range of electrical devices. His patented AC induction motor and transformer were licensed by George Westinghouse, who also hired Tesla as a consultant to help develop a power system using alternating current. Tesla is also known for his high-voltage, high-frequency power experiments in New York and Colorado Springs which included patented devices and theoretical work used in the invention of radio communication,[6] for his X-ray experiments, and for his ill-fated attempt at intercontinental wireless transmission in his unfinished Wardenclyffe Tower project.[7]

Tesla's achievements and his abilities as a showman demonstrating his seemingly miraculous inventions made him world-famous.[8] Although he made a great deal of money from his patents, he spent a lot on numerous experiments. He lived for most of his life in a series of New York hotels although the end of his patent income and eventual bankruptcy led him to live in diminished circumstances.[9] Tesla still continued to invite the press to parties he held on his birthday to announce new inventions he was working and make (sometimes unusual) statements.[10][11] Because of his pronouncements and the nature of his work over the years, Tesla gained a reputation in popular culture as the archetypal "mad scientist".[12] He died on 7 January 1943.

Tesla's work fell into relative obscurity after his death, but since the 1990s, his reputation has experienced a comeback in popular culture.[13] His work and reputed inventions are also at the center of many conspiracy theories and have also been used to support various pseudosciences, UFO theories and New Age occultism. In 1960, in honor of Tesla, the General Conference on Weights and Measures for the International System of Units dedicated the term "tesla" to the SI unit measure for magnetic field strength.[


Nikola Tesla at Wireless Telephone Demonstration, 1902

Photos & Info>>>



Tesla Memorial Society of New York Website


Nikola Tesla - "The Greatest mind of all"  ( 44 mins)


Nikola Tesla - "The Greatest mind of all" (original - Modern Marvels Nikola Tesla - Mad electricity from History Channel )

Nikola Tesla - Никола Тесла 10 July 1856 -- 7 January 1943 - was a Serbian-American inventor, mechanical engineer, electrical engineer, and futurist. He was an important contributor to the use of commercial electricity, and is best known for developing the modern alternating current (AC) electrical supply system. His many revolutionary developments in the field of electromagnetism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were based on the theories of electromagnetic technology discovered by Michael Faraday. Tesla's patents and theoretical work also formed the basis of wireless communication and the radio.

Born in the village of Smiljan (now part of Gospić, present day Croatia), Tesla was a subject of the Austrian Empire by birth and later became an American citizen.Because of his 1894 demonstration of short range wireless communication through radio and as the eventual victor in the "War of Currents", he was widely respected as one of the greatest electrical engineers who worked in America. He pioneered modern electrical engineering and many of his discoveries were of groundbreaking importance. In the United States during this time, Tesla's fame rivaled that of any other inventor or scientist in history or popular culture.Tesla demonstrated wireless energy transfer to power electronic devices in 1891, and aspired to intercontinental wireless transmission of industrial power in his unfinished Wardenclyffe Tower project.

Tesla became reclusive towards the end of his life, living alone in a New York City hotel room and only appearing occasionally to make unusual statements to the press. Because of his pronouncements and the nature of his work over the years Tesla gained a reputation in popular culture as the archetypal "mad scientist". He died with little money to his name.



Nicola Tesla Museum – Belgrade, Serbia



Telautomaton - Tesla's 1898

 Radio Controlled Boat



Nicola Tesla Museum – Belgrade


Nikola Tesla Museum, Belgrade (Traveline Serbia) ( 4 mins)


In this clip we visit the Nikola Tesla museum, situated in the centre of Belgrade, the Serbian capital.



Live action Tesla Coil at the Nikola Tesla Museum  -  and -  a Model of Nikola Tesla - The Wardenclyffe Tower 







Nikola Tesla - The Forgotten Wizard (Father Of Scalar Energy!) ( 9 mins)

Nikola Tesla, who was born in Yugoslavia around 1856-1857, demonstrated the existence of Scalar Energy. Tesla, who became a US citizen in 1891 carried on James Clark Maxwells work and soon began to harness Scalar Energy without using any wires. Tesla referred to this energy as standing energy or universal waves.

Nikola Tesla movie -- Most amazing Man who ever Lived! ( 15 mins)

"My Inventions" - a short film bio-pic about Nikola Tesla.

Nikola Tesla Inventions In Three-Dimensions - Animation( 3 mins)







The Secret of Tesla Waves ( 45 mins)

Anya Petrovic, the founder of Tesla Metamorphosis, Scientist Eng. Goran Marjanovic & Dr. Prof. Ljubo Ristovski, gathered together by Tesla Waves, talk about the phenomena as guests of Kresimir Misak in HTV program On the Edge of Science, Tesla Waves, unlike Hertzian waves, get stronger with the distance. PIP camera images register Tesla Waves as purple colour around Tesla Amplifier as well as during Tesla Metamorphosis Session. Dr. Prof. Ristovski states that these purple colours were not registered on PIP camera images of any other healing modalities.

Nikola Tesla - Non-Hertzian Waves

Nikola Tesla constantly wrote about what he called non-Hertzian waves. During his epochal visit to Colorado Springs in 1899, he made new discoveries about the nature of electromagnetic waves, known to some as stationary or longitudinal waves, to others as scalar waves. 





Nikola Tesla-- The Wardenclyffe Tower located in Shoreham, Long Island, New York.



Free Energy – The Race to Zero Point ( 1 Hr: 49 mins)

Nikola Tesla unlimited free energy forever





The Tesla Papers: Nikola Tesla on Free Energy and Wireless Transmission of Power - By Nikola Tesla - Article

In The Tesla Papers, David Childress has compiled the writings of Nikola Tesla into a comprehensive, informative, and down right fascinating volume of material that provides background and insight into Tesla's amazing inventions.

Divided into seven parts the reader is treated to Tesla: Humanitarian;

The Problem of Increasing Human Energy; The Wireless Transmission of Power; Tesla's Electric Car; The Tesla Papers; Tesla's FBI Files; The Marconi-Tesla Trial Transcripts. The Tesla Papers is enhanced with some of the papers on Tesla's thoughts and work regarding wireless power, anti-gravity, robotics, free energy, advanced solar power system, patents, and material collected on Tesla at the Colorado Springs Tesla Symposium. The Tesla Papers is a "must" for all Nikola Tesla enthusiasts, as well as students of alternative science, iconoclastic technology, and suppressed history.







Nikola Tesla - The Untold Story - “The Genius the Lit the World” ( 42 mins)

Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) - Scientist and Inventor

This program reveals the discoveries of a forgotten genius, many of which went virtually unnoticed for nearly a century. Nikola Tesla is considered the father of our modern technological age and one of the most mysterious and controversial scientists in history. How did this obscure visionary from what is now Yugoslavia, lay the foundation for modern communications and energy research?

Nikola Tesla's contributions to science and technology include the invention of radio, television, radio-astronomy, remote control and robotics, radar, medical x-ray and the wireless transmission of electricity. Many of Nikola Tesla's inventions were and in some cases still are considered too revolutionary by government agencies and the power brokers of the time and are discussed in detail in this program.

Encyclopedia Britannica lists Nikola Tesla as one of the top ten most fascinating people in history. So why is he virtually unknown to the general public? This program is a penetrating study of the life and mind of a scientific superman who, against all odds, dedicated his life to the task of designing and improving technology for the service and advancement of humanity.





The Missing Secrets Of Nikola Tesla ( 46 mins)

Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856 - January 1943) was an inventor and a mechanical and electrical engineer. He is frequently cited as one of the most important contributors to the birth of commercial electricity and is best known for his many revolutionary developments in the field of electromagnetism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Tesla's patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current (AC) electric power systems, including the polyphase system of electrical distribution and the AC motor, with which he helped usher in the Second Industrial Revolution.

Born an ethnic Serb in the village of Smiljan, Croatian Military Frontier, in the territory of today's Croatia, he was a subject of the Austrian Empire by birth and later became an American citizen. After his demonstration of wireless communication through radio in 1894 and after being the victor in the "War of Currents", he was widely respected as one of the greatest electrical engineers who worked in America. Much of his early work pioneered modern electrical engineering and many of his discoveries were of groundbreaking importance. During this period, in the United States, Tesla's fame rivaled that of any other inventor or scientist in history or popular culture, but due to his eccentric personality and his seemingly unbelievable and sometimes bizarre claims about possible scientific and technological developments, Tesla was ultimately ostracized and regarded as a mad scientist. Tesla never put much focus on his finances. It is said he died impoverished, at the age of 86.






Nikola Tesla - Master of Lightning - Full video PBS 2000 ( 1 Hr : 26 mins)

This amazing documentary gives long overdue recognition to a great and misunderstood man of science. The life of Nikola Tesla is an inspiring example of the power of one man to change the world with technology and revolutionary ideas.

Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the most fascinating scientists of the 20th century. He invented, developed or imagined the technology that brought us electricity, remote control, neon and florescent lighting, radio transmission and much more... all the basic inventions that now connect the world with power and information.

He was a brilliant and charismatic immigrant whose talent took him to the height of celebrity. He locked horns with Thomas Edison, J. Pierpont Morgan, Guglielmo Marconi, and George Westinghouse. Mark Twain praised his genius. They are all characters in this program, the very first to tell the full story of Tesla's life and work.

Like many geniuses, Tesla was not a conventional man. He gave his life to realize his visions, while others made millions with his inventions. Tragically, he died penniless and nearly forgotten.







The Secret of Nikola Tesla (Full length- Movie)  1980 /Re-2007( 1Hr: 37mins)

When a young and gifted inventor by the name of Nikola Tesla (Petar Bozovic) arrives in America, he first works for the famous Thomas Edison (Dennis Patrick) but later strikes a fruitful cooperation with George Westinghouse (Strother Martin). Together they battle against Edison in order for Tesla's superior system of alternative current to be accepted by the world community who currently uses only Edison's system of direct current. Later on the mighty financier J.P. Morgan (Orson Welles) joins the game as he provides Tesla with financial support to build his Colorado Springs laboratory only to completely dump him later on after he realizes Tesla's inventions could provide the world with unlimited free energy for everybody. See one of the most important periods of modern history and the tragedy of this great inventor who aspired to change the world towards a better place. A rare attempt of biographical movie production by the former Yugoslav (Croatian) cinema, the movie being completely in english.


Nikola Tesla in his laboratory, 1916




Nikola Tesla talks about Tesla - Part 1 ( 32 mins)

Nikola Tesla talks about Tesla - Part 2 ( 1 Hr: 23 mins)










Nikola Tesla Omitted in the “SMITHSONIAN BOOK OF INVENTION”






By this time the totally brainwashed reader is led to believe that our electrical world started with Mr. Edison at Menlo Park when he invented the light bulb in 1879; then he finished electrifying America in 1895 by creating the Niagara Falls power station. Yet it was Tesla's nine basic U.S. patents that were used in that power plant's creation. Edison had no role in that project whatsoever.


Is it not classic irony that today Americans hold Edison in such high esteem, many even paying their electric bills to companies bearing his name, while Tesla, our actual benefactor, is essentially erased from our schools, in our technical journals, and even in our marvelous Smithsonian Institution? Something has gone awry and we need to correct this sorrowful situation.


The Smithsonian's Visual Timeline of Inventions Book cites Rubik's cube, the electric toothbrush, and the pop-up toaster, but fails to list the AC motor. Tesla is not even listed in the Index. Further, they credit the invention of radio to Guglielmo Marconi---"1895...After reading the scientific writings of Heinrich Hertz, 20 year old Italian Guglielmo Marconi invented radio communication."


The Smithsonian ignores Thomas Commerford Martin's biography of Tesla, published in 1894, describing Tesla's demonstration of radio transmission in 1893. The Smithsonian also ignores (as previously mentioned) the U.S. Supreme Court's decision upholding Tesla's patents for the invention of radio.


War of Currents









The Nikola Tesla Energy Science 2003 Conference and Exposition

November 4th and 5th, 2003 – Washington, D.C.


DVDs & VHS Tapes availabe


Nikola Tesla was Murdered by Otto Skorzeny - Project Camelot Article


Otto Skorzeny’s Deathbed Confession




Walter Russell






According to Walter Russell the cube and sphere are one.



Walter Russell

Walter Bowman Russell (May 19, 1871 – May 19, 1963) was an American artist and mystic known for his achievements as a painter, sculptor, author and builder and less well known as a natural philosopher and for his unified theory in physics and cosmogony. He posited that the universe was founded on a unifying principle of rhythmic balanced interchange. This physical theory, laid out primarily in his books The Secret of Light (1947) and The Message of the Divine Iliad (1948–49), has not been accepted by mainstream scientists. Russell asserted that this was mainly due to a difference in the assumptions made about the existence of mind and matter; Russell assumes the existence of mind as cause while he believes that scientists in general assume the existence of mind as effect. Russell was also proficient in philosophy, music, ice skating, and was a professor at the institution he founded, the University of Science and Philosophy. He believed mediocrity is self-inflicted and genius is self-bestowed. The content of his public lectures and his writing about living philosophy place him firmly in the New Thought Movement,…


Publications by Walter Russell


The Man Who Tapped the Secrets of the Universe”

Book by Glenn Clark

This biography of Walter Russell, known as the modern Leonardo da Vinci, a musician, illustrator, portrait painter, architectural designer, sculptor, business advisor to IBM, champion figure skater, scientist, philosopher, and author of Five Personal Laws of Success.

- “Mediocrity is self-inflicted. Genius is self-bestowed.” -Walter Russell quote

The Man Who Tapped the Secrets of the Universe - Episode #57 ( 9 mins) 

The Man Who Tapped the Secrets of the Universe by Glenn Clark. In this PN TV episode, we'll take a peek at some wisdom from Walter Russell--"The Man Who Tapped the Secrets of the Universe." He tells us that "Mediocrity is self-inflicted and genius self-bestowed" and we'll talk about how to get your genius rockin'!


Walter Russell, explains Concentric Circles, Spheres and Cubic Wave-fields

Vortices of Light from Walter Russell's Cosmology


Walter Russell's Concentric Spheres

The Motion of Light.

All Matter is the Creation of Light.

The entire Universe is composed of nothing but Light




On Walter Russell - "Light Does Not Travel" ( 4 mins)   >>>???


The Motions of Light

The Secret of Light - The Cosmology of Walter Russell




The Wright Brothers





The Wright Brothers - Wilbur Wright & Orville Wright

 - First human flight, on December 17, 1903


The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who were credited[1][2][3] with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903. In the two years afterward, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. Although not the first to build and fly experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.


The brothers' fundamental breakthrough was their invention of three-axis control, which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and to maintain its equilibrium.This method became standard and remains standard on fixed-wing aircraft of all kinds.[8][9] From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused on developing a reliable method of pilot control as the key to solving "the flying problem". This approach differed significantly from other experimenters of the time who put more emphasis on developing powerful engines.[10] Using a small homebuilt wind tunnel, the Wrights also collected more accurate data than any before, enabling them to design and build wings and propellers that were more efficient than any before.[11][12] Their first U.S. patent, 821,393, did not claim invention of a flying machine, but rather, the invention of a system of aerodynamic control that manipulated a flying machine's surfaces.

They gained the mechanical skills essential for their success by working for years in their shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery. Their work with bicycles in particular influenced their belief that an unstable vehicle like a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice. From 1900 until their first powered flights in late 1903, they conducted extensive glider tests that also developed their skills as pilots. Their bicycle shop employee Charlie Taylor became an important part of the team, building their first aircraft engine in close collaboration with the brothers.


Wright Brothers First Flight, 1903 - A Day That Shook The World [HD]  ( 3 mins)


Wright Brothers First Flight, 1903 - A Day That Shook The World [HD]. Orville and Wilbur Wright's first recorded flight caught exclusively by British Pathé in 1903. On December 17, news came through that two brothers had flown a curious air machine for more than a minute. To the sceptics, this footage proved that it was true.

A Day That Shook The World is the classic series that recalls the days of the 20th century that proved to be era-defining and pivotal in the course of modern history.







The Wright Brothers (1970) Paul Garber - History Of Flight - Part 1/4  ( 29 mins)


The New Inventions And Inovations Devised By The Wrights To Display Their New Aircraft.








Conquest Of The Air  ( 1 Hr: 02 mins)


This drama follows man's attempts to fly from ancient times through the first balloons, the Wright Brothers, and other pioneers, using dramatic re-enactment and working models of early flying machines.

Beginning with World War I, archival footage is used. Much on mid-1930s commercial aircraft and experimental planes including early helicopters. In conclusion, some sword-rattling appropriate to the opening months of World War II.



Dennis Gabor



He received the Nobel Physics Prize in

1971 for his invention of the hologram.






Dennis Gabor - Hungarian-British Physicist -  Invention and Development of the "Holographic Method" - (1900 - 1979)


The Hungarian-British physicist & Electrical Engineer Dennis Gabor (in Hungarian: Gábor Dénes), was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971 "for his invention and development of the holographic method".His work, done in the late 1940s, built on pioneering work in the field of X-ray microscopy by other scientists including Mieczysław Wolfke in 1920 and WL Bragg in 1939.[ The discovery was an unexpected result of research into improving electron microscopes at the British Thomson-Houston Company in Rugby, England, and the company filed a patent in December 1947. The technique as originally invented is still used in electron microscopy, where it is known as electron holography, but optical holography did not really advance until the development of the laser in 1960.




Holography is a technique which enables three-dimensional images to be made. It involves the use of a laser, interference, diffraction, light intensity recording and suitable illumination of the recording. The image changes as the position and orientation of the viewing system changes in exactly the same way as if the object were still present, thus making the image appear three-dimensional.

The holographic recording itself is not an image; it consists of an apparently random structure of either varying intensity, density or profile.



Holography - Direct Link to Our Science Page  





Werner Heisenberg




One of the Most Important Discoveries in

all of Science:
"The Heisenberg Uncertaintly Principle."





Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1932 "for the creation of quantum mechanics". Heisenberg, along with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, set forth the matrix formulation of quantum mechanics in 1925. In 1927 he published his Uncertainty Principle, upon which he built his philosophy and for which he is best known. He also made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of turbulent flows, the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism, cosmic rays, and subatomic particles, and he was instrumental in planning the first West German nuclear reactor at Karlsruhe, together with a research reactor in Munich, in 1957. Considerable controversy surrounds his work on atomic research during World War II.

Following World War II, he was appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics, which soon thereafter was renamed the Max Planck Institute for Physics. He was director of the institute until it was moved to Munich in 1958, when it was expanded and renamed the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics.

Heisenberg was also president of the German Research Council, chairman of the Commission for Atomic Physics, chairman of the Nuclear Physics Working Group, and president of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.


“The more precisely the position is determined, the less precisely the momentum is

known in this instant, and vice versa.” -Heisenberg  1927


Werner Heisenberg

Werner Heisenberg: the Columbus of Quantum Mechanics


Werner Heisenberg - Article


Werner Heisenberg -  Uncertainty Principle - Article





Invention of Radio


Guglielmo Marconi - A partial Inventor of the Radio...?




The 1905 Cornwell , England Towers




Invention of Radio - Many people were involved in the Invention of Radio


Radio owes its development to two other inventions, the telegraph and the telephone, all three technologies are closely related. Radio technology began as "wireless telegraphy".


The Tesla Contribution ! - The Real Inventor?


History of Radio


The early history of radio is the history of technology that produced radio instruments that use radio waves. Within the timeline of radio, many people contributed theory and inventions in what became radio.[1] Radio development began as "wireless telegraphy".[1] Later radio history increasingly involves matters of programming and content.


James Clerk Maxwell  showed mathematically that electromagnetic waves could propagate through free space. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz and many others demonstrated radio wave propagation on a laboratory scale.

Nikola Tesla   experimentally demonstrated the transmission and radiation of radio frequency energy in 1892 and 1893 proposing that it might be used for the telecommunication of information.The Tesla method was described in New York[4] in 1897. In 1897, Tesla applied for two key United States radio patents, US 645576, first radio system patent, and US 649621.Tesla also used sensitive electromagnetic receivers, that were unlike the less responsive coherers later used by Marconi and other early experimenters. Shortly thereafter, he began to develop wireless remote control devices.

Guglielmo Marconi

In 1895, Marconi built a wireless system capable of transmitting signals at long distances (1.5 mi./ 2.4 km).From Marconi's experiments, the phenomenon that transmission range is proportional to the square of antenna height is known as "Marconi's law". This formula represents a physical law that radio devices use.

Radio can refer to either the electronic appliance that we listen with or the content listened to. However, it all started with the discovery of "radio waves" - electromagnetic waves that have the capacity to transmit music, speech, pictures and other data invisibly through the air. Many devices work by using electromagnetic waves including: radio, microwaves, cordless phones, remote controlled toys, television broadcasts, and more.

Many people were involved in the invention of radio as we now know it. Several possible methods of wireless communication were considered, including inductive and capacitive induction and transmission through the ground, however the method used for radio today exclusively involves the transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves.

After early speculation on the subject, experimental work on the connection between electricity and magnetism began around 1820 with the work of Hans Christian Ørsted and continued with the work of André-Marie Ampère, Joseph Henry, and Michael Faraday. These investigations culminated in the complete theory of electromagnetism developed by James Clerk Maxwell. This theory described the theoretical basis of the propagation of electromagnetic waves.


Marconi is the father of radio? Oh really? ( 6 mins)


Marconi is generally credited as being the father of radio.

People use to think that he completely invented all the concepts radio uses, and that without him radio transmission wouldn't exist.

But all Marconi did is to use the ideas of other inventors, and notably the ones of Nikola Tesla.
Nikola Tesla is in fact the real inventor of wireless transmission.

Without Tesla, Marconi would not have been able to go further than short wireless transmission.
It's Tesla who defined the concepts which allowed long distance wireless transmission.
Nikola Tesla is the real inventor of radio.


Guglielmo Marconi Showing Demo Of Radio TX/RX  ( 18 Seconds )


Guglielmo Marconi Story ( 2 mins)






Philo Farnsworth





Many inventors had built electromechanical television systems prior to Farnsworth's seminal contribution, but Farnsworth designed and built the world's first working all-electronic television system, employing electronic scanning in both the pickup and display devices. He first demonstrated his system to the press on September 3, 1928, and to the public at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia on August 25, 1934.




Philo Farnsworth - Electronic TV Inventor

Inventor of the first Electronic Television, over 300 United States and foreign patents


Philo Taylor Farnsworth (August 19, 1906 – March 11, 1971) was an American inventor and television pioneer.[2] Although he made many contributions that were crucial to the early development of all-electronic television, he is perhaps best known for inventing the first fully functional all-electronic image pickup device (video camera tube), the "image dissector", the first fully functional and complete all-electronic television system, and for being the first person to demonstrate such a system to the public.[3][4] Farnsworth developed a television system complete with receiver and camera, which he produced commercially in the firm of the Farnsworth Television and Radio Corporation, from 1938 to 1951.

In later life, Farnsworth invented a small nuclear fusion device, the Farnsworth–Hirsch fusor, or simply "fusor", employing inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC). Although not a practical device for generating nuclear energy, the fusor serves as a viable source of neutrons. The design of this device has been the acknowledged inspiration for other fusion approaches including the Polywell reactor concept in terms of a general approach to fusion design.[8] Farnsworth held 165 patents, mostly in radio and television.

Many inventors had built electromechanical television systems prior to Farnsworth's seminal contribution, but Farnsworth designed and built the world's first working all-electronic television system, employing electronic scanning in both the pickup and display devices.
He first demonstrated his system to the press on September 3, 1928,


1928 –  First Television sets become available to purchase


... In 1931, David Sarnoff of RCA offered to buy Farnsworth's patents for $100,000 (USD), with the stipulation that he become an employee of RCA, but Farnsworth refused.[5] In June of that year, Farnsworth joined the Philco company and moved to Philadelphia along with his wife and two children.[27] RCA would later file an interference suit against Farnsworth, claiming Zworykin's 1923 patent had priority over Farnsworth's design, despite the fact it could present no evidence that Zworykin had actually produced a functioning transmitter tube before 1931. Farnsworth had lost two interference claims to Zworykin in 1928, but this time he prevailed and the U.S. Patent Office rendered a decision in  1934 awarding priority of the invention of the image dissector to Farnsworth. ...  After sailing to Europe in 1934, Farnsworth secured an agreement with Goerz-Bosch-Fernseh in Germany. Some image dissector cameras were used to broadcast the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. ...


The Origins of Television ( 12 mins)

A segment from a 1996 episode of the Discovery Channel's "Origins" program discussing the origins of television. Featuring Paul Schatzkin, author of "The Boy Who Invented Television."


The 1936 Olympic Games were televised for the First Time


The 1936 Olympic Games were televised by two German firms, Telefunken and Fernseh and marked the first live television coverage of a sports event in world history with a total of 138 viewing hours. Using three electronic cameras and 24 movie cameras, 162,000 viewers watched the competition in special viewing booths, called "Public Television Offices" in Berlin and Potsdam. In addition to the introduction of television, the 1936 Games received extensive radio coverage, as a total of 2500 radio broadcasts were made in 28 different languages.


Pre-war Television 1937 ( 7 mins)


This is a short video of an HMV 901 mirror lid television from 1937 displaying clips from an early demonstration film. The video and sound signals are being converted for 405 line operation and modulate the original 45MHz/41.5MHz carriers which are fed into the aerial socket of the HMV 901. Occasionally you will see narrow dark horizontal bands on the the picture. These are only aliasing effects from the camcorder that is capturing the scene and are not present in reality.






The RCA 630-TS, the first mass-produced television set, sold from 1946 to 1947.






Evolution of the Modern TV

Just about everyone owns a TV, but did you ever dream that a teenager came up with the idea? In 1920, 14-year-old Philo Farnsworth first conceived of it, supposedly while he was plowing a potato field. In 1926, he and his business partner founded Crocker Research Laboratories (later named Farnsworth Radio and Television Corporation); only one year after that, the first-ever transmitted images were sent.


John Logie Baird 1937 ( 1 min)

Mechanical TV ( Not Electric)

John Logie Baird giving a description of his first television camera on display at the Science Museum, London. The television camera was demonstrated to the press and members of The Royal Institution at Frith Street 22, London, on January 27 1926. This was the first public demonstration of true television.
I recorded this piece of historic movie on VHS from The Discovery Channel some years ago.

The Story of Television ( 25 mins)

The history of television produced by RCA in 1956. This is TV history according to RCA, focusing on the technological advances that could be attributed to RCA and de-emphasizing everything else. A lot of TV "firsts" are shown: first president to be televised, first televised baseball game, etc. David Sarnoff talks with Vladimir Zworykin about television's early development at RCA. The last third of the film suddenly breaks into color to talk about the development of color television.

Television -- The Race For Television 1985 ( 52 mins)

Episode 2 of the Granada Television documentary which looks at the early development and growth of the medium and the attempts to perfect television in the early part of the 20th century.
A look at the growth and the influence of television. In 1923, John Logie Baird was conducting experiments on 'seeing by wireless'. Throughout the 20th Century a handful of pioneers worked to win the race for television. This program tells their story, from Baird's earliest ramshackle experiments to America's battle between big business and the inventors. - Narrated by Ian Holme.

History of Television 





Color Television History & Fisrt Transmmision etc.

BBC Colour Television experiments - 1959 ( 2 mins)

BBC Television had been experimenting with a colour system for a number of years when this film (This Is The BBC) was made in June 1960. It gave an impression of a day in the life of the corporation and colour experiments were featured at the end.

Colour television experiments were conducted after the end of the usual television broadcasting hours, so usually television experiments were conducted in the early hours of the morning.

The BBC were at this point experimenting with the American NTSC system until the mid 1960's when they swtiched to the German PAL system. - Transmission: 29 June 1960.

First Commercial Color TV in 1954 ( 1 mins)\

Color television










Rocket Technology - Invention

      Solar Cells - Invention





A Silicon solar cell or Solar Photovoltaic cell.



Solar Cells - Invention


The timeline of solar cells begins in the 19th century when it is observed that the presence of sunlight is capable of generating usable electrical energy. Solar cells have gone on to be used in many applications. They have historically been used in situations where electrical power from the grid is unavailable.


Definition of a Solar Cell - History of Solar Cells  [ Article


A solar cell is any device that directly converts the energy in light into electrical energy through the process of photovoltaics. The development of solar cell technology begins with the 1839 research of French physicist Antoine-César Becquerel. Becquerel observed the photovoltaic effect while experimenting with a solid electrode in an electrolyte solution when he saw a voltage developed when light fell upon the electrode.

Charles Fritts - First Solar Cell

According to Encyclopedia Britannica the first genuine solar cell was built around 1883 by Charles Fritts, who used junctions formed by coating selenium (a semiconductor) with an extremely thin layer of gold.


The Power of the Sun - The Science of the Silicon Solar Cell  ( 22 mins)


Explore the science of the silicon solar cell, currently the most important generator of solar electricity. [2/2008]


Solar Cells - How they Work ( 5 mins)


An explanation of how solar cells work. Suitable for an introduction to solar energy.


History of Solar Cell



A bundle of optical fibers




Fiber Optics


An optical fiber (or optical fibre) is a flexible, transparent fiber made of high quality extruded glass (silica) or plastic, slightly thicker than a human hair. It can function as a waveguide, or “light pipe”, to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communication. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so that they may be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in confined spaces. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers.

Optical fibers typically include a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by total internal reflection. This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers that support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers (MMF), while those that only support a single mode are called single-mode fibers (SMF). Multi-mode fibers generally have a wider core diameter, and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-mode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 1,000 meters (3,300 ft).

Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. The ends of the fibers must be carefully cleaved, and then spliced together, either mechanically or by fusing them with heat. Special optical fiber connectors for removable connections are also available. 


Fiber-optic Communications


Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. First developed in the 1970s, fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized the telecommunications industry and have played a major role in the advent of the Information Age. Because of its advantages over electrical transmission, optical fibers have largely replaced copper wire communications in core networks in the developed world.

The process of communicating using fiber-optics involves the following basic steps: Creating the optical signal involving the use of a transmitter, relaying the signal along the fiber, ensuring that the signal does not become too distorted or weak, receiving the optical signal, and converting it into an electrical signal.






Various Inventors / Inventions >>>


Air Ship / Zeppelin - Trains - Steamboats - Submarines ...



Wind-Power - Invention






Back to Top of Page


Visionaries - The Human Genome Project






Unlocking The Mystery Of Life ( 1 Hr: 07 mins)

In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species. In it, he argued that all of life on earth was the product of undirected natural processes: Time, chance, and natural selection. Since Darwin, biologists have relied on such processes to account for the origin of living things. Yet today, this approach is being challenged as never before.

"Unlocking the Mystery of Life" tells the story of contemporary scientists who are advancing a powerful but controversial idea—the theory of intelligent design.

"Unlocking" is the product of more than three years of research, photography, and post production. Based upon the scholarly work of Stephen C. Meyer, Michael Behe, William Dembski and others, this documentary presents the scientific case for intelligent design based upon recent discoveries in biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology.

The film was photographed throughout the United States in 2001 and 2002. Location photography also took place in the Galapagos Islands at the site of Charles Darwin's seminal 1835 expedition.

"Unlocking" is highlighted by computer animation that depicts the inner-workings of the living cell. Animator Tim Doherty created sequences illustrating the structure and operations of the cell nucleus, the DNA molecule, protein molecules, and the bacterial flagellar motor.

After its release is September 2003, Unlocking the Mystery of Life aired on PBS. The show was broadcast on more than 40 affiliates throughout the United States. The cancellation of a scheduled broadcast on station KNME in Albequerque, New Mexico triggered national news coverage and a debate over PBS programming decisions.




On 25 April 1953, Francis Crick (left) and James Watson (right) published a paper in Nature describing the double helix structure of DNA.



DNA Double Helix: Discovery that led to 60 years of Biological Revolution

Six decades after DNA's shapely curves were first revealed, no aspect of biology is now above modification, remix or redesign




The structure of part of a DNA - Animation




The structure of the DNA double helix. The atoms in the structure are colour coded by element and the detailed structure of two base pairs is shown in the bottom right.




DNA Structure – Genes & Genomes

Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms (with the exception of RNA viruses). The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information. Along with RNA and proteins, DNA is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.

DNA consists of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups joined by ester bonds. These two strands run in opposite directions to each other and are therefore anti-parallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of molecules called nucleobases (informally, bases). It is the sequence of these four nucleobases along the backbone that encodes information. This information is read using the genetic code, which specifies the sequence of the amino acids within proteins. The code is read by copying stretches of DNA into the related nucleic acid RNA in a process called transcription.

Within cells DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing each cell its own complete set of chromosomes. Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi, and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus and some of their DNA in organelles, such as mitochondria or chloroplasts. In contrast, prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) store their DNA only in the cytoplasm. Within the chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed.




DNA replication







Human Genome Project


The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project with a primary goal of determining the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA, and of identifying and mapping the approximately 20,000–25,000 genes of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint.[

The project began in October 1990[2] and was initially headed by Aristides Patrinos, head of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. Francis Collins directed the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Human Genome Research Institute efforts. A working draft of the genome was announced in 2000 and a complete one in 2003, with further, more detailed analysis still being published. A parallel project was conducted outside of government by the Celera Corporation, or Celera Genomics, which was formally launched in 1998. Most of the government-sponsored sequencing was performed in universities and research centres from the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany and Spain. Researchers continue to identify protein-coding genes and their functions; the objective is to find disease-causing genes and possibly use the information to develop more specific treatments. It also may be possible to locate patterns in gene expression, which could help physicians glean insight into the body's emergent properties.

While the objective of the Human Genome Project is to understand the genetic makeup of the human species, the project has also focused on several other nonhuman organisms such as E. coli, the fruit fly, and the laboratory mouse. It remains one of the largest single investigative projects in modern science.


...  Findings
Key findings of the draft (2001) and complete (2004) genome sequences include

1. There are approximately 23,000 genes in human beings, the same range as in mice and roundworms. Understanding how these genes express themselves will provide clues to how diseases are caused.

2. The human genome has significantly more segmental duplications (nearly identical, repeated sections of DNA) than other mammalian genomes. These sections may underlie the creation of new primate-specific genes

3. At the time when the draft sequence was published fewer than 7% of protein families appeared to be vertebrate specific


All About The Human Genome Project (HGP)


The Human Genome Project (HGP) was one of the great feats of exploration in history - an inward voyage of discovery rather than an outward exploration of the planet or the cosmos; an international research effort to sequence and map all of the genes - together known as the genome - of members of our species, Homo sapiens. Completed in April 2003, the HGP gave us the ability, for the first time, to read nature's complete genetic blueprint for building a human being.

You will find access to a wealth of information on the history of the HGP, its progress, cast of characters and future.



Dr Tim Hubbard




The first printout of the human genome to be presented as a series of books, displayed at the Wellcome Collection, London




DNA - Dr Tim Hubbard – Article

Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Research Limited


The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute is a charitably funded genomic research centre located in Hinxton, nine miles south of Cambridge in the UK.

A leader in the Human Genome Project, we are now focused on understanding the role of genetics in health and disease. Our passion for discovery drives our quest to uncover the basis of genetic and infectious disease. We aim to provide results that can be translated into diagnostics, treatments or therapies that reduce global health burdens.







DNA Structure ( 2 mins)

DNA Structure - Artwork slides ( 10 mins)

Explanation of the structure of DNA. Artwork is courtesy of McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Molecular Visualizations of DNA ( 7 mins)

Amazing CGI visualization of molecular biology's central dogma. It shows animations of DNA coiling, replication, transcription and translation. -It was created by Drew Berry of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical






Pairs of human chromosomes.

Highlighted in green is alu, a 'junk'

DNA sequence that distinguishes

primates from other mammals.




 Is 90 % of DNA JUNK?? - New Discovery!!


"Junk" DNA: Why non-coding DNA Isn't Really Junk

The existence of large amounts of non-coding "junk" DNA (up to 97% in humans) in the genomes of eukaryotes has been used as an argument against intelligent design (and the role of a Creator) and as an argument for the random process of evolution. Two evolutionary theories attempted to explain the reason for the existence of non-coding DNA. One theory stated that non-coding DNA was "junk" that consisted of randomly-produced sequences that had lost their coding ability or partially duplicated genes that were non-functional. The second theory stated that non-coding DNA was "selfish", in that it consisted of DNA that preferentially replicated more efficiently that coding DNA, even though it provided no selective advantage (in fact was somewhat detrimental since it was parasitic). There have always been problems with these arguments, which have been ignored by many of those making these claims. The main question presented by proponents of the "junk" or "selfish" DNA theories is, "Why would a perfect God create flawed DNA which is primarily composed of useless, non-coding regions?" The definitive answer has finally arrived, although for many years there have been strong suggestions of what the non-coding DNA is doing in our genomes....


The trouble with Genes


There were lots of justifications for dismissing junk DNA as 'junk'. Not only did it lack code words for amino acids; it turned out 50% of the junk was comprised of inane repetition.

These repetitious tracts seemed meaningless. But researchers had a good notion of what many of them were. Most of the repeats were 'transposons' or 'jumping genes'.

Jumping genes, which may have originated from invading viruses, have the ability to copy themselves independently of the rest of the genome and then become inserted randomly throughout the genome.

Then there was another reason to suspect that much of the DNA of a species was junk. The total amount of DNA seemed to bear very little relationship to the complexity of the organism.

An amoeba for instance, had a thousand times more DNA than a human. Sometimes it seemed cells multiplied, but forgot to divide, ending up with vast amounts of DNA. It seemed as though DNA just liked to go along for the ride.


When JUNK DNA isn't Junk!!!






How DNA got to be here ???


DNA, who made it? And if it is DNA that is creating our universe, then is the fallacy of our universe created by the same intelligence??
Can we use DNA to bare witness to this intelligence or must we abandon DNA and use some other means?

Francis Crick even thought DNA was to far advanced a structure to have evolved on Earth from the primordial environment that preceded its appearance.

Crick elaborated on Sweden's Gustavs Arrhenius theory of Panspermia, and suggested that it was

seeded here on Earth by some form of intelligence from somewhere else in space. He called it

 "Directed Panspermia".

Timothy Leary suggested, that once DNA is seeded, sprouted, and has evolved to high degrees of intelligence, it will naturally look inward at itself and decipher the message therein to determine its purpose. In Leary's mind, he foresaw this purpose as contacting the original mother for further instructions.

My own hunch is that DNA only being 4 - 6 atoms in width, makes it the perfect candidate as a conduit that channels information back from the demension of the imagination in the form of wave/light, then have this information solidify/crystalize creating the 3rd demension. ...


Sumerian clues to 2012 DNA change ( 10 mins)


A look at how the proof is there that our DNA has been genetically altered externally,







Link to our Science page on

"DNA & The Human Genome"








Visionaries -

The Information Age & IT Visionaries in the Twentieth Century






The History of the Computer >>?


1975 – The personal computer, both small and powerful, is invented


1830s – Ada Byron, a mathematician, writes the world’s first computer program for a computing machine designed by Charles Babbage, but never built








The internet by numbers

Internet users in the world


E-mail messages sent today


Blog posts today


Google searches in one day







Discovery Channel Series -  'The True Story of the Internet'  >>> ?? /issues/ch001016.htm /History_of_the_Internet






Though the former vice president was one of the wallets behind the emergence of the world wide web, it was Vinton Cerf







The True Story of the Internet ( 44 mins)

Host John Heilemann explores the interactive nature of the modern World Wide Web, from early successes like Napster and the still popular Craigslist, to more recent phenomena like the social networking sites MySpace and Facebook.

In this episode, "People Power," teenager Shawn Fanning invents Napster and forever changes the way music is shared over the Net -- and, later, the way people communicate with each other via this medium.

Download: The True Story of the Internet is about a revolution -- the technological, cultural, commercial and social revolution that has radically changed our lives.

And for the first time, we hear how it happened from the men and women who made it possible.

From the founders of eBay, Yahoo, Amazon, Netscape, Google and many others, we hear amazing stories of how, in ten short years, the Internet took over our lives. These extraordinary men and women tell us how they went from being geeky, computer obsessed nerds to being 21st-century visionaries in the time it takes most people to get their first promotion. And, how they made untold billions along the way.

The style of the story-telling is up close and personal. With first-hand testimony from the people that matter, we tell a story that has all the excitement of a thriller -- full of battles and back-stabbing, moments of genius and moments of sheer hilarity. You will never surf the net in the same way again.

Download is hosted by technology journalist John Heilemann. He's an edgy, combative, hi-energy New Yorker who never takes anything at face value. He's also a personal friend of most of Silicon Valley's most important characters and he revels in craziness of it all. After all, this is a story in which 20-year-olds become overnight billionaires, create, destroy and re-create more wealth in ten years then human race has ever seen, and still struggle to get a date.






Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World - Book


Authors :Jack Goldsmith, Tim Wu


Is the Internet erasing national borders? Will the future of the Net be set by Internet engineers, rogue programmers, the United Nations, or powerful countries? Who's really in control of what's happening on the Net? In this provocative new book, Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu tell the fascinating story of the Internet's challenge to governmental rule in the 1990s, and the ensuing battles with governments around the world. It's a book about the fate of one idea--that the Internet might liberate us forever from government, borders, and even our physical selves.


We learn of Google's struggles with the French government and Yahoo's capitulation to the Chinese regime; of how the European Union sets privacy standards on the Net for the entire world; and of eBay's struggles with fraud and how it slowly learned to trust the FBI. In a decade of events the original vision is uprooted, as governments time and time again assert their power to direct the future of the Internet. The destiny of the Internet over the next decades, argue Goldsmith and Wu, will reflect the interests of powerful nations and the conflicts within and between them. While acknowledging the many attractions of the earliest visions of the Internet, the authors describe the new order, and speaking to both its surprising virtues and unavoidable vices. Far from destroying the Internet, the experience of the last decade has lead to a quiet rediscovery of some of the oldest functions and justifications for territorial government.


 While territorial governments have unavoidable problems, it has proven hard to replace what legitimacy governments have, and harder yet to replace the system of rule of law that controls the unchecked evils of anarchy. While the Net will change some of the ways that territorial states govern, it will not diminish the oldest and most fundamental roles of government and challenges of governance. Well written and filled with fascinating examples, including colorful portraits of many key players in Internet history, this is a work that is bound to stir heated debate in the cyberspace community.



1990: Tim Berners-Lee invents the

"World Wide Web".






Web Design and the World Wide Web


Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web by its inventor - Book by Tim Berners-Lee


Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web by its inventor (1999) is a book written by Tim Berners-Lee describing how the world wide web was created and his role in it. It is the only book written by Berners-Lee. Ultimate_Destiny_of_the_World_Wide_Web_by_its_inventor


Web Design - History >>>


  - There are a variety of languages such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP and Flash to create a site... 







The Search Engines - Browser:


1993 – Marc Andreeson creates the first browser program, allowing people to navigate the Web



 AOL - Google - Yahoo - Bing...






Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Back Rub

from Google




Google - Inventors





E-mail messages


1972 – The first E-mail messages are sent






Steve Chen, Chad Hurley and

 Jawed Karim




Youtube - Inventors


History of YouTube


The History of YouTube began in February 2005 when three former PayPal employees activated the Internet domain name "" and started to create a video-sharing website on which users could upload, share, and view videos


YouTube was invented by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim out of a garage in Menlo Park. The inventors became millionaires when they sold their invention for 1.65 billion dollars to the search engine Google.

According to their fact sheet, YouTube was founded in February 2005, as a destination to watch and share original videos worldwide through the Web. Users can upload and share video clips on  and YouTube enables video embedding that allows YouTube videos to be placed on non-YouTube pages.


YouTube Inventor - Steve Chen


Steve Chen was born in 1978 in Taiwan and immigrated to the United States when he was 15. He was educated at the University of Illinois and and after graduation found employment at PayPal, where he met his fellow YouTube co-inventors and co-founders Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim. Currently, Steve Chen serves as the Chief Technology Officer at YouTube.


YouTube Inventor - Chad Hurley


Born in 1977, Chad Hurley received a Bachelors degree in Fine Art from the University of Pennsylvania and was later employed eBay’s PayPal division. Currently, Chad Hurley serves as the Chief Executive Officer at YouTube and is considered a whiz at user interface design. As a sidenote: Hurley designed Paypal's trademark logo.


YouTube Inventor - Jawed Karim


Jawed Karim also worked at Paypal, where he meet his future corporate cohorts. However, Karim has also pursued an advanced degree at Stanford University and is considered the elusive member of the threesome. According to Jawed Karim the inspiration for YouTube came from the halftime faux pas committed by Janet Jackson and Justin Timberlake, when Janet’s breast was accidently exposed. Karim could not easily find that video clip online and then a few others. Not a problem he would have today.






Higher Education >>






Music Sharing >>?






The History of Blogging







Social Media - My Space - Twitter - Facebook





E-Bay >> - Pay Pal>> ??





The Information Age: Visionaries in the Twentieth Century


Information Age Inventions>> 1323070017943300253&hvpone=&hvptwo=&hvqmt=e&ref=pd_sl_3q3kmk9rgv_e









Bill Gates & Microsoft >> ?






Steven Jobs & Apple >> ?









Internet Privacy? >>>







Don Massaro and the PC Revolution  and the Floppy Disc /  



The Inventor of the Micro Chip



The Inventor of the CD/DVD





Computer Gadgets >




The Invention of the Mouse >>





1982 – The first cell phones are available for sale









De-light: Mini LED Projector enriches mobile entertainment


With the latest innovations in technology, modern devices are getting smaller day by day. And the De-light is the latest addition to the list of portable devices. Finished with hard plastic with soft rubber control on the rear stem, the De-light is a portable projector that promises to enrich your mobile entertainment experience. The LED projector, coming in the shape of an electricity bulb, is so small that it can easily fit in your hand and a pocket. With the mini device, users can enjoy group gaming and share photos and videos on their mobile sets. The ultra-mobile projector is definitely a creative and innovative invention in the field of gadgets.


Prediction: The next iPhone from Apple will have a built-in video projector






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The Prophets of Science Fiction






The Prophets of Science Fiction - Documentaries Series >>


Prophets of Science Fiction is an American documentary television series produced and hosted by Ridley Scott for the Science channel. The program premiered on November 9, 2011.

The series covers the life and work of leading science fiction authors.It depicts how they predicted and influenced the development of scientific advancements through film clips, reenactments, illustrations and interviews.

The first episode received mixed reviews. Commentators appreciated the approach of combining coverage of contemporary scientific research and biographical exposition,[3] but criticized the series as "light on the substance and heavy on the exaggeration". The series' attempts to link Mary Shelley's Frankenstein to developments such as

 organ transplants, supercomputers and DNA research were described variously as "far-fetched"or as successful

The series' first season consists of eight one-hour-long episodes which aired on the Science Channel in November 2011 and February 2012.




Air date


Mary Shelley

9 November 2011


Philip K. Dick

16 November 2011


H.G. Wells

23 November 2011


Arthur C. Clarke

30 November 2011


Isaac Asimov

15 February 2012


Jules Verne

22 February 2012


Robert Heinlein

29 February 2012


George Lucas

7 March 2012





Jules Verne








Cover of Jules Verne, the World's Greatest Prophet



Jules Verne


Jules Verne (1828-1905), noted French scientific author wrote Around the World in Eighty Days (1873), Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), and Twenty Thousand Leagues Under The Sea (1869)

Jules Gabriel Verne - Born February 8, 1828 in Nantes, France - Died March 24, 1905 (aged 77) Amiens, France, was a French author who pioneered the science fiction genre.[1] He is best known for his novels Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870), Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), From the Earth to the Moon (1865), and Around the World in Eighty Days (1873). Many of his novels involve elements of technology that were fantastic for the day but later became commonplace. Verne is the second most translated author in the world (following Dame Agatha Christie).[2] Some of his books have been made into live-action and animated films and television shows. Verne is often referred to as the "Father of Science Fiction".

Rockets and “the Internet???”



Bio & List of Books


Jules Verne - Prophet Of Science Fiction - Documentary ( 42 mins)


Paris in the Twentieth Century





DIscovery Channel - Prophets of Science Fictions Series >>>>?





Walt Disney - Epcot's Futuristic Concepts




Arthur C. Clark -




Gene Rodenberry










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Visionaries - Inventors & Inventions - The Futurists


“The dreamers are the saviors of the world.” — James Allen, writer






The Visionary

Defined broadly, a visionary, is one who can envision the future. For some groups this can involve the supernatural or drugs.

The visionary state is achieved via meditation, drugs, lucid dreams, daydreams, or art. One example is Hildegard of Bingen, a 12th century artist/visionary and Catholic saint. Other visionaries in religion are Mohammed, St Bernadette and Joseph Smith (said to have had a vision of and communed with the Angel Gabriel), the Blessed Virgin), and the Angel Moroni respectively).






All Time Greatest Visionaries!








Visionaries: Inside the Creative Mind


What's inside a creative mind? During each hour of OWN's new documentary series, Visionaries: Inside the Creative Mind, cameras follow iconic innovators inside their creative process, offering never-before-seen views of true masterminds at work.

Beginning with Tyler Perry, and with subsequent episodes following Tom Ford, James Cameron, and Annie Leibowitz, this five-episode series provides a unique insight into what made these visionaries who they are.

Read more:


Barbara Marx Hubbard




Barbara Marx-Hubbard – Visionary & Futurist

Barbara Marx Hubbard (born Barbara Marx in 1929) is a prolific futurist, author and public speaker. She is credited with the evolutionary concepts of ‘The Synergy Engine’ and the 'birthing' of humanity.

She is currently President of the Foundation for Conscious Evolution, which she co-founded in 1990



Due to the increased power given us through science and technology, we are learning how nature works – the gene, the atom, the brain. We are affecting our own evolution by everything we do. With these new powers we can destroy our life support systems …or we can move toward a hope-filled future of immeasurable possibilities. We are the generation of choice, and we do not have much time to choose! Conscious Evolution is the worldview that has arisen precisely at this moment in history to deal with the new human condition. It is a vision and a direction to help us navigate through this transitional period to the next stage of human evolution. As Einstein admonished, humankind cannot solve its problems from the same place of consciousness in which we created them. A new place of consciousness is required. In simple terms Conscious Evolution takes place when we intend to grow in consciousness and use our increasing awareness to guide our actions and achieve a positive future. Bela H. Banathy, author of Guided Evolution of Society, offers this additional understanding of Conscious Evolution: It is a process by which we can individually and collectively take responsibility for our future. It is a process of giving direction to the evolution of human systems by purposeful action. And most importantly, Conscious Evolution enables us, if we take responsibility for it, to use our creative power to guide our own lives and the evolution of the systems and the communities in which we live and work. It is a process by which individuals and groups, families, organizations, and societies can envision and create images of what should be, and bring those images to life by design. Conscious Evolution is at the core a spiritually-motivated endeavor. Its precepts reside at the heart of every great faith, affirming that humans have the potential of being co-creators with Spirit, with the deeper patterns of nature and universal design. The promise of Conscious Evolution is nothing less than the emergence of a universal humanity capable of guiding its own evolution into a future of unimaginable co-creativity .  





Mind Science/ Matter & Quantum Holography - Edgar Mitchell, Astronaut


Edgar Mitchell, Apollo 14 Astronaut




The Quantum Hologram & ESP - Edgar Mitchell, Apollo Astronaut 

( 1 Hr: 03  mins)


Apollo 14 Astronaut, Dr. Edgar Mitchell presents an elegant scientific explanation for psychic phenomenon - The Quantum Hologram. Based on the latest research in quantum physics, this program brings to the general public information previously known by only a few research scientists in the world.

Learn the details of a secret psychic experiment conducted by Mitchell on the Moon during his mission on Apollo 14. Watch as he candidly describes a personal experience of psychic and spiritual transformation that was triggered by his Moon landing aboard Apollo 14 and which led to the discoveries presented in this program.

Dr. Edgar Mitchell became the sixth man to walk on the moon and later founded the Institute of Noetic Sciences, an organization dedicated to finding scientific answers to many of humanities great mysteries such as psychic phenomenon.







Mindshift Institute Interviews Dr. Edgar Mitchell ( 33 mins) !!!!!!!!!!!!

In this exclusive interview, renowned scientist Dr. Edgar Mitchell , an Apollo 14 astronaut and the sixth man to walk on the moon, introduces all of us to his profound discoveries concerning quantum science and the newly discovered quantum hologram. Dr. Mitchell shows clearly how this new knowledge can help us better understand a wide range of anomalous phenomena (e.g., ESP, telepathy and psychokinesis), perception and even consciousness itself. 



Peter Diamandis




Peter Diamandis - Visionary


Dr. Peter H. Diamandis (born May 20, 1961) is considered a key figure in the development of the personal spaceflight industry, having created many space-related businesses or organizations. He is the Founder and Chairman of the X Prize Foundation, an educational non-profit prize institute whose mission is to create radical breakthroughs for the benefit of humanity.



Undivided Mind - Video of Inspired by Abundance


A shout out goes to Current TV host and futurist Jason Silva, who was so inspired by the book that he created a powerful video we’re pleased to share with you.


Video Interview w Current TV ----? Gavin Newsom ?? 6/29/12


>>?? TED???

X Prizes >?>?










Michio Kaku  – Quantum String Theorist - Visionary & Futurist


Dr. Michio Kaku (加来 道雄 Kaku Michio?, born January 24, 1947) is an American theoretical physicist, the Henry Semat Professor of Theoretical Physics in the City College of New York of City University of New York, a futurist, and a communicator and popularizer of science. He has written several books about physics and related topics; he has made frequent appearances on radio, television, and film; and he writes extensive online blogs and articles. He has written two New York Times Best Sellers, Physics of the Impossible (2008) and Physics of the Future (2011).

Kaku has hosted several TV specials for BBC-TV, the Discovery Channel, and the Science Channel.





New Science & Physics with Michio Kaku  ( 1 Hr: 17 mins)


George welcomed theoretical physicist and author Dr. Michio Kaku, who discussed a variety of science and physics topics, as well as the kinds of scientific advancements we might expect in the years ahead. With experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, "we hope to create dark matter," and that would send shock waves throughout the whole physics community, he commented. "Some people think dark matter is ordinary matter floating above us in another dimension," he added. Interestingly, he noted that an invisibility cloak has recently been achieved in experiments with small objects, and it's only a matter of time before it can done with larger objects.

String theory suggests that we live in a multiverse, and that our universe could be thought of as a three-dimensional bubble floating in a larger 11-dimension realm, he explained. Travel through a wormhole might be possible if we could obtain "negative matter" (not available on Earth), which could function to keep a gateway or ring through the wormhole from collapsing, Kaku hypothesized. This negative matter could be compared to the dilithium crystals used to power the warp drive on Star Trek's spaceships, he detailed.

The technology for building virtual environments such as depicted in The Matrix continues to develop, and eventually we may be able to move around and touch objects within such a 360 degree world, right in our living rooms, he said. On another front, a research institute based in Kyoto, Japan is developing a technology using MRIs to record a person's dreams and turn them into images, he reported. In addition to his own radio show, Dr. Kaku now hosts a weekly cable TV program, Sci Fi Science, on the Science Channel.

Michio Kaku, professor of theoretical physics and co-founder of string field theory, is the author of nine books, including the best-selling "Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universes, Time Warps, and the 10th Dimension," and most recently, "Visions: How Science Will Revolutionize the 21st Century." His doctorate-level textbooks are required reading at top physics labs worldwide.


Michio Kaku >>>> 








Ray Kurzweil  - Inventor and Futurist


 - book, The Singularity Is Near





David Brin







& more>>>



David Brin


Brin was born in Glendale, California in 1950. In 1973, he graduated from the California Institute of Technology with a Bachelor of Science in astrophysics.[8] He followed this with a Master of Science in applied physics in 1978 and a Doctor of Philosophy in space science in 1981, both from the University of California, San Diego.

Brin is a 2010 fellow of the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies

David Brin is a scientist, best-selling author and tech-futurist. His novels include Earth, The Postman (filmed in 1997) and Hugo Award winners Startide Rising and The Uplift War. A leading commentator and speaker on modern trends, his nonfiction book The Transparent Society won the Freedom of Speech Award of the American Library Association. Brin's newest novel EXISTENCE explores the ultimate question: billions of planets are ripe for life. So where is Everybody? David's main thread: how will we shape the days and years ahead -- and how will tomorrow shape us?



Science and the "Great Delusion" with David Brin, Sci-Fi Author  ( 43 mins)


Sci-fi author, David Brin, is the final guest in our series, Creating the Future. And I start the interview with just that question, who is creating the future? Brin replies that everyone, that civilization is creating the future. However, he concedes that if you were to compare civilization to a human brain, that "a few of us are the pre-frontal lobes . . . who poke sticks in the sand, in the trail ahead of us that we're charging into so that we can find the quicksand pits . . . before we step right into them." Brin is one of those sci-fi authors who was actually a scientist, an astronomer first. Why and when did he begin writing? And how does his inner scientist feel about it? David talks of the "Great Delusion" that man fell and falls into on account of his imagination. And it was Science, one of the four pillars of the Enlightenment, that freed us from the delusion. We have trained the imagination and are no longer subjects to the oligarchies of the past. Brin is an actor as well as writer and scientist. You're bound to be captivated by his command of science, history, politics, and by his entertaining wit.


TEDxBrussels - David Brin - Target 2061: Reinventing Civilization Across Half a Century ( 18 mins)




 ..." "The next step is satellite-based quantum teleportation, which should enable quantum communication on a global scale. We have now taken a major step in this direction ..." -

Anton Zeilinger



Teleportation - Vienna Institute of Experimental Physics >>>


Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology


The "Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology" is a joint initiative of the University of Vienna, the Vienna University of Technology, and the Austrian Academy of Sciences, which unites quantum physicists of Vienna's research institutions in one collaborative center. The VCQ will set new impulses for research and teaching through its unique spectrum of research topics - from fundamental quantum physics to novel quantum technologies.


143 km: Physicists break Quantum Teleportation distance - Article


Physicists at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have achieved quantum teleportation over a record distance of 143 km. The experiment is a major step towards satellite-based quantum communication. The results have now been published in Nature.

An international team led by the Austrian physicist Anton Zeilinger has successfully transmitted quantum states between the two Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, over a distance of 143 km. The previous record, set by researchers in China just a few months ago, was 97 km.

Breaking the distance record wasn't the scientists' primary goal though. This experiment provides the basis for a worldwide information network, in which quantum mechanical effects enable the exchange of messages with greater security, and allow certain calculations to be performed more efficiently than with conventional technologies. In such a future '', quantum teleportation will be a key protocol for the transmission of information between quantum computers.

In a quantum teleportation experiment, quantum states—but not matter—are exchanged between two parties over distances that can be, in principle, arbitrarily long. The process works even if the location of the recipient is not known. Such an exchange can be used either for the transmission of messages, or as an operation in future quantum computers. In these applications the that encode the quantum states have to be transported reliably over without compromising the fragile . The experiment of the Austrian physicists, in which they have now set up a quantum connection suitable for quantum teleportation over distances of more than 100 km, opens up new horizons.

Read more at:

An international team led by the Austrian physicist Anton Zeilinger has successfully transmitted quantum states between the two Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, over a distance of 143 km. The previous record, set by researchers in China just a few months ago, was 97 km.


Breaking the distance record wasn't the scientists' primary goal though. This experiment provides the basis for a worldwide information network, in which quantum mechanical effects enable the exchange of messages with greater security, and allow certain calculations to be performed more efficiently than with conventional technologies. In such a future 'quantum internet', quantum teleportation will be a key protocol for the transmission of information between quantum computers.


143 km: Physicists break quantum teleportation distance

In a quantum teleportation experiment, quantum states—but not matter—are exchanged between two parties over distances that can be, in principle, arbitrarily long. The process works even if the location of the recipient is not known. Such an exchange can be used either for the transmission of messages, or as an operation in future quantum computers. In these applications the photons that encode the quantum states have to be transported reliably over long distances without compromising the fragile quantum state. The experiment of the Austrian physicists, in which they have now set up a quantum connection suitable for quantum teleportation over distances of more than 100 km, opens up new horizons. ....>>






Series of Interviews - "Creating the Future"  ?>??










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Walt Disney's " EPCOT - " The City of the Future" >?>?




Jacque Fresco











The Venus Project ( in Florida USA)

Jacque Fresco of the Venus Project



"The Venus Project offers a comprehensive plan for social reclamation

in which human beings, technology and nature will be able to
coexist in a long term, sustainable state of dynamic equilibrium."



Jacque Fresco (born March 13, 1916), is a self-educated structural designer, philosopher of science, concept artist, educator, and futurist. His interests span a wide range of disciplines including several in philosophy, science, and engineering.[4] Fresco writes and lectures extensively on his view of subjects ranging from the holistic design of sustainable cities, energy efficiency, natural resource management, cybernated technology, advanced automation, and the role of science in society, focusing on the benefits he claims this will bring. With his colleague, Roxanne Meadows, he is the founder and director of an organization known as The Venus Project, located in Venus, Florida.

The Venus Project advocates an alternative vision for a sustainable new world civilization unlike any socio-economic system that has gone before. It calls for a straightforward redesign of a culture, in which the age-old inadequacies of war, poverty, hunger, debt, and unnecessary human suffering are viewed not only as avoidable, but totally unacceptable.


Venus Project Website


 "The Venus Project Tour with Jacque Fresco"-  Trailer ( 10 mins)

 5 DVD set is available at:



Awakening – Venus Project  (Part 1 of 4) – (7:32 mins) Play List


Awaken to the world around us, the problems we face, why they exist, and how to truly solve them once and for all. Please rip, share, push and promote this video. Make this viral, and educate the world!


The Venus ProjectModular Tower  ( 8 mins)

The Venus Project- Designing the Future Part 1




Greatest Inventions & Discoveries 






All Time Greatest Visionaries!







100 Greatest Inventions of All Times


Though the idea of ranking inventions might seem a little silly, Philbin's catalog of machines and tools that have changed the world proves a surprisingly absorbing read-largely because of the author's brisk, fact-filled and gossipy descriptions. His entry for invention #2, for example, not only recounts how Thomas Edison used plain-old cotton thread to invent the electric light bulb, it also reveals Edison himself to be "a work-obsessed, sometimes ruthless, egoistic man who could be obscene and a little crude." Similarly, in reading about the development of general anesthesia (invention #34), one learns that British chemist Joseph Priestly isolated the gas nitrous oxide in 1776 and that "enlightened members of society" used to hold "ether frolics" in which they reveled in the gas's intoxicating properties. Even a seemingly obvious entry like "nail" (invention #36) yields an intriguing account of the old artisan profession of "nailor." Philbin clearly has a knack for making even the driest facts yield narrative juice. Anyone in the mood for a pleasant survey of science history would do well to buy his book.









100 Greatest Discoveries - Series

  • Physics

  • Astronomy

  • Earth Science

  • Biology

  • Chemistry

  • Medicine

  • Genetics

  • The Origin and Evolution of Life






50 Visionaries Who Are Changing Your World






25 Visionaries Who Created Empires From Virtually Nothing






50 Visionaries Who Are Changing Your World   >>  






10 visionaries with 10 big ideas for a better world.






The Unknown Geniuses Behind 10 Of The Most Useful Inventions Ever







Researchers measure the Magnetic  Charge of Antimatter !! ( 3/25/2013 Article)


A Harvard team of scientists led by physicist Gerald Gabrielse have announced that they’ve successfully performed the most exact magnetic charge measurement of matter and antimatter particles ever. Such a precise measurement not only helps scientist answer important questions, but also paves the way for even more accurate measurements in the future.


Presently, this latest measurement will help researchers determine why our universe is composed of matter, rather than antimatter, something that has not yet been solved. Current theories have it that the Big Bang made equal amounts of antimatter and matter, but now we’re left with matter versus antimatter. The reasons for this is unknown.

When matter and antimatter meet, they are annihilated. To keep this from happening during the experiements, the scientists suspended both antiprotons and protons using an electromagnetic field. During this, the researchers then measured the protons by means of their oscillations. The most significant result was the antiproton measurement, which is more accurate by a factor of 680.

Said the lead researcher, “What we wanted to do with these experiments was to say, “Let’s take a simple system — a single proton and a single antiproton — and let’s compare their predicted relationships, and see if our predictions are correct … I’m confident that, given this start, we’re going to be able to increase the accuracy of these measurements by another factor of 1,000, or even 10,000.”




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Greatest Inventions & Discoveries 

- Documentaries & Books






Greatest Discoveries - Documentaries






100 Greatest Discoveries / Physics – Documentary ( 44 mins)

Discovery Channel | Scientists have transformed the way we think and live throughout the centuries. What are the most important scientific discoveries of all time? In no particular order, we present the top 100 in eight different categories.









100 Greatest Discoveries / Astronomy – Documentary ( 44 mins)







100 Greatest Discoveries / Biology – Documentary ( 44 mins)








100 Greatest Discoveries / Chemistry – Documentary ( 44 mins)


Discovery of the Periodic Table of the Elements









100 Greatest Discoveries / Medicine – Documentary ( 44 mins)

Bill Nye takes us through some of the most important discoveries in medicine throughout our history, Like Andreas Vesalias digging up bodies by cover of night to dissect and learn about our anatomy, or how we learned about the operations of the heart.






100 Greatest Discoveries / Genetics – Documentary ( 44 mins)








100 Greatest Discoveries / Earth Science – Documentary ( 44 mins)





100 Greatest Discoveries / The Origin and Evolution of Life – Documentary ( 44 mins)





PBS - NOVA - Series >>





BBC Horizon - Series


Clips of over 200 Videos - on Science & Technology







BBC Horizon Order And Disorder With Jim AI.Khalili  - EP01  ( 59 mins)

Professor Jim Al-Khalili investigates one of the most important concepts in the world today - information. He discovers how we harnessed the power of symbols, everything from the first alphabet to the electric telegraph through to the modern digital age. But on this journey he learns that information is not just about human communication, it is woven very profoundly into the fabric of reality.



































Jim Al-Khalili - Quantum Life: How Physics Can Revolutionise Biology  ( 59 mins)


Evening Discourse at the Royal Institution, Professor Jim Al-Khalili explores how the mysteries of quantum theory might be observable at the biological level.

Although many examples can be found in the scientific literature dating back half a century, there is still no widespread acceptance that quantum mechanics -- that baffling yet powerful theory of the subatomic world -- might play an important role in biological processes. Biology is, at its most basic, chemistry, and chemistry is built on the rules of quantum mechanics in the way atoms and molecules behave and fit together.

As Jim explains, biologists have until recently been dismissive of counter-intuitive aspects of the theory and feel it to be unnecessary, preferring their traditional ball-and-stick models of the molecular structures of life. Likewise, physicists have been reluctant to venture into the messy and complex world of the living cell - why should they when they can test their theories far more cleanly in the controlled environment of the physics lab?

But now, experimental techniques in biology have become so sophisticated that the time is ripe for testing ideas familiar to quantum physicists. Can quantum phenomena in the subatomic world impact the biological level and be present in living cells or processes - from the way proteins fold or genes mutate and the way plants harness light in photosynthesis to the way some birds navigate using the Earth's magnetic field? All appear to utilise what Jim terms "the weirdness of the quantum world".

The discourse explores multiple theories of quantum mechanics, from superposition to quantum tunnelling, and reveals why "the most powerful theory in the whole of science" remains incredibly mysterious. Plus, watch out for a fantastic explanation of the famous double slit experiment.


Jameel (Jim) Sadik Al-Khalili OBE (born 20 September 1962) is an Iraqi-born British theoretical physicist, author and broadcaster. He is currently Professor of Theoretical Physics and Chair in the Public Engagement in Science at the University of Surrey. He has hosted several BBC productions about science and is a frequent commentator about science in other British media. He currently presents the weekly radio 4 programme, "The Life Scientific", on BBC Radio Four.[4] Beginning in October 2012, it is broadcast every Tuesday morning for half the year.[5] He is also President of the British Humanist Association.






Unlocking The Mystery Of Life ( 1 Hr: 07 mins)

In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species. In it, he argued that all of life on earth was the product of undirected natural processes: Time, chance, and natural selection. Since Darwin, biologists have relied on such processes to account for the origin of living things. Yet today, this approach is being challenged as never before.

"Unlocking the Mystery of Life" tells the story of contemporary scientists who are advancing a powerful but controversial idea—the theory of intelligent design.

"Unlocking" is the product of more than three years of research, photography, and post production. Based upon the scholarly work of Stephen C. Meyer, Michael Behe, William Dembski and others, this documentary presents the scientific case for intelligent design based upon recent discoveries in biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology.

The film was photographed throughout the United States in 2001 and 2002. Location photography also took place in the Galapagos Islands at the site of Charles Darwin's seminal 1835 expedition.

"Unlocking" is highlighted by computer animation that depicts the inner-workings of the living cell. Animator Tim Doherty created sequences illustrating the structure and operations of the cell nucleus, the DNA molecule, protein molecules, and the bacterial flagellar motor.

After its release is September 2003, Unlocking the Mystery of Life aired on PBS. The show was broadcast on more than 40 affiliates throughout the United States. The cancellation of a scheduled broadcast on station KNME in Albequerque, New Mexico triggered national news coverage and a debate over PBS programming decisions.







The Universe Quantum Physics Microscopic Universe - Documentary ( 44 mins) 





Most of Our Universe is Missing

We know what 4% of the Universe is made of. But what about the rest?



Most of Our Universe is Missing - BBC










The Smithsonian Book of Invention

by Alexis Doster III, Joe Goodwin and Jame M. Ross (Hardcover - Jun 1, 1978)

Join the Smithsonian Institution on a wonderful photographic tour of history, and the inventions which began the technological boom of today. Combined with engaging, informative text.

The Smithsonian Book of Invention is an extra-large hardcover book almost an inch thick. Many inventors and their inventions are shown and their impact on civilization discussed...such people as Einstein, Bell, Goodyear, Edison, and many others, but Tesla and his epic-causing discoveries are omitted. Nevertheless, strange as it may seem, the book included Archie Bunker and Colonel Sanders.







The Big Ideas That Changed The World - by Dorling Kindersley


Discover the big ideas that changed our world. From matches to mobiles, antibiotics and the flexible drinking straw - some inventions don't just change the way we do things but change the world. Marvel at some of the world's most amazing discoveries that have made a sensation, from the first wheel to satellite navigation. Kids will love the incredible facts and info, such as why the tin can was invented 60 years before the can opener? Read on in wonder at the stories behind each ground-breaking discovery - the people, ideas and knock on effects. Some of the biggest ideas covered include the Model T Ford, Edison's light bulb, Catseyes and the first Apple.






Inventing the 19th Century  -   Inventing the 19th Century  - American Inventions = Books


The author of numerous books on the history of patents, Stephen Van Dulken is an expert curator in the Patents Information Service of The British Library





















Top 5 Japanese Modern Inventions ( 6 mins)   


Japan Unveils Mind Control Robot  ( 2 mins)


And finally... in Japan scientists at the Honda Research Institute have unveiled the world's first brain to machine interface. Dubbed BMI short for Brain Machine Interface this new technology system will enable people to control robots using their mind.

Pushing buttons and fiddling with levers to control a robot could be a thing of the past. Honda's new system works using a brain activity measuring device that sends signals to their famous ASIMO humanoid robot.

As a user imagines moving a body part, sensors placed on the head measure and analyze the slight waves and blood flow changes in the brain. This allows the robot to make corresponding movements such as raising its arm or leg.

Honda hopes to incorporate the technology into a variety of human-friendly products in the future.


Japanese Dream Recording Machine  ( 2 mins)


Japanese scientists have created the first step toward a device that, by scanning people's brains, could record people's dreams and read their mind.

A science lab in Kyoto, Japan has developed a system of using MRI scanners to resolve images directly from subject's brains. The current experiments show a subject an image and then reconstruct that image based on scans of the brain's visual cortex.

The team calibrated a computer program by scanning volunteers staring at hundreds of different still images in black, white and grey. Then, the computer program reproduces the figures and letters that the volunteers had seen, albeit more blurry than the originals.

The next step for researchers will be to study how to visualize images inside people's minds that have not been presented before - a technology that could make it possible to record people's dreams.

[Yoshiyuki Onuki, Tester]:
"Although it's somewhat science fiction-like, for example, if you're 50-years-old and see a really good dream the day before, you could scan that and show it to your kids."

Researchers say the brain-reading technology would also open the way for people to communicate directly from their mind or control electronic devices without using their bodies - making keyboards and buttons a thing of the past.

[Dr. Yukiyasu Kamitani, ATR Institute]:

"Although there are many forms of communication, whether it be the Internet or whatnot, all of them are limited by the body. However, this means that we have a method of communications that can interface directly with the brain."

While the new technology opens the doors to many new possibilities, scientists warn that it could bring about new issues concerning ethics and privacy, meaning that for those wanting to "plug themselves in," they might have to wait a bit longer.




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"National Inventors Hall of Fame”


National Inventors Hall of Fame

 in Akron, Ohio






"National Inventors Hall of Fame”


The National Inventors Hall of Fame was established in 1973 to honor the individuals who conceived, patented, and advanced the great technological achievements since the birth of our nation. The Hall of Fame is located in Alexandria, Virginia on the campus of the United States Patent and Trademark Office, a founding partner of the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

The National Inventors Hall of Fame (NIHF) is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to recognizing, honoring and encouraging invention and creativity through the administration of its programs. The Hall of Fame honors the men and women responsible for the great technological advances that make human, social and economic progress possible. As of 2011 there were 460 inductees. New inductee announcements are made in mid-February.

The National Inventors Hall of Fame was founded in 1973 on the initiative of H. Hume Mathews, then chairman of the National Council of Patent Law Associations (now called the National Council of Intellectual Property Law Associations). The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office became a cosponsor of the NIHF the following year.

The Hall is currently located in Alexandria, Virginia, with satellite offices in the Washington, D.C., area and in Los Angeles, California. Originally housed in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, the Hall outgrew its location and moved to Akron. Ohio. The Hall of Fame building in Akron, which also housed hands-on interactive exhibits, opened to the public in 1995 under the name Inventure Place. In 2002 the name was changed to the National Inventors Hall of Fame Museum. In 2008 the NIHF was closed in Akron and reopened in Alexandria. The building in Akron is currently used by the National Inventors Hall of Fame School...Center for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Learning, a middle school within the Akron Pubic Schools.

During the annual induction ceremony, a new class of inventors is recognized. Inventors must hold a U.S. patent to be considered, and the invention must have contributed to the welfare of mankind and have promoted the progress of science and the useful arts. A National Selection Committee and Blue Ribbon Panel select inductees.

Located at Akron, Ohio (school) and Alexandria, Va. (Hall of Fame)





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 Inventions -  The Great Writers







The Wisdom of Ralph Waldo Emerson

Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, philosopher, and poet, best remembered for leading the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. His teachings directly influenced the growing New Thought movement of the mid-1800s. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society. 




Henry Thoreau >?>?>








The 50 Greatest Books Ever Written


This list isn't about the most famous or the most exciting books. It's a list of books that truly enlightened and inspired readers. These books are some of the greatest works that humanity ever produced, real masterpieces in other words. From stories to science to philosophy I tried to make this list as diverse as possible.


  • - Analects by Confucius
    - Avesta
    - Beelzebub's Tales To His Grandson by G.I. Gurdjieff
    - Civil Disobedience by Henry David Thoreau
    - Common Sense by Thomas Paine
    - Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
    - Confessions by Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    - Corpus Aristotelicum by Aristotle
    - Cybernetics by Norbert Wiener
    - Dhammapada
    - Dialogue Concerning The Two Chief World Systems by Galileo Galilei
    - Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri
    - Don Quixote by Miguel De Cervantes
    - Encyclopedia by Denis Diderot
    - First Folio by William Shakespeare
    - Elements by Euclid
    - Guide For The Perplexed by Maimonides
    - Harmony Of The World by Johannes Kepler
    - History Of The Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon
    - History Of The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides
    - I Ching
    - Iliad and Odyssey by Homer
    - Interpretation Of Dreams by Sigmund Freud
    - Kabbalah
    - Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes
    - Mathematical Principles Of Natural Philosophy by Isaac Newton
    - Meditations by Marcus Aurelius
    - Mind And Society by Vilfredo Pareto
    - Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell
    - Novum Organum by Francis Bacon
    - Old Testament and New Testament
    - On Liberty by John Stuart Mill
    - On The Babylonian Captivity Of The Church by Martin Luther
    - On The Nature Of Things by Lucretius
    - On The Origin Of Species by Charles Darwin
    - On The Revolutions Of The Celestial Spheres by Nicolaus Copernicus
    - Phenomenology Of Spirit by G.W.F. Hegel
    - Qur'an
    - Quotations From Chairman Mao by Mao Zedong
    - Relativity by Albert Einstein
    - Republic by Plato
    - Second Sex by Simone De Beauvoir
    - Syntactic Structures by Noam Chomsky
    - Thus Spoke Zarathustra by Friedrich Nietzsche
    - Trial by Franz Kafka
    - Upanishads
    - Vindication Of The Rights Of Woman by Mary Wollstonecraft
    - War And Peace by Leo Tolstoy
    - Way And Its Power by Laozi
    - Wealth Of Nations by Adam Smith







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